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N A Final Worksheet

N A BP, Respiration, pulse and temp Final

List physiological factors which determine blood pressure - 1 - Blood volume; 2 - Peripheral resistance (Blood thickness) 3 - Vessel elasticity; 4 - Condition of the heart muscle & arterial walls
What is a normal diatolic reading? 60 - 80
What is a normal systolic reading? 90 - 140
Define Prehypertension - A BP with a diastolic reading of 80 - 88
Define Hypertension - A BP with a diastolic reading over 90
BP is measured in what? Millimeters of mercury or mm Hg
What is the name of the method used to obtain a BP using a stethoscope? Auscultatory
List what is meant by vital signs - Pt temp, pulse, respiration & BP
What does TPR stand for? Temperature, Pulse, Respiration
Describe phase I of BP - First sound heard as cuff deflates
Describe phase II of BP - More blood thru cuff, can hear a swish sound,
Describe phase III of BP - Loud sounds continue
Describe phase IV of BP - Sounds get quieter; last sound heard is diastolic reading
Describe phase V of BP - No sounds, blood flows freely
What is the medical term for when sounds stop and restart while taking BP? Auscultory Gap
During what phase are you likely to hear the Auscultory gap? Phase II
What is a normal adult pulse reading? 60 - 100
What is a normal pulse reading for a baby or infant? Greater than 100
What happen to a persons pulse when they are hemorrhaging? Pulse increases
What happens to a persons BP when they are hemorrhaging? BP decreases
What is the normal respiration rate for an adult? 14 - 22
What are the names of the different pulse sites? 1 - Temporal; 2 - Carotid; 3 - Apical; 4 - Brachial; 5 - Radial; 6 - Femoral; 7 - Popliteal; 8 - Dorsalis pedis
Where is the temporal pulse located? To the side of the head just above the ear and towards the eye
Where is the carotid pulse located? Side of the neck
Where is the apical pulse located? In the chest area near left breast, over apex of heart
Where is the brachial pulse located? Antecubital or inner aspect of the elbow for adults or teens; for infants or young children in the grove between the biceps & triceps muscles on the inner surface of the mid-upper arm
Where is the radial pulse located? Thumb side of the wrist
Where is the femoral pulse located? Where the femoral artery passes through the groin. ( You must press deeply below the inguinal ligament to palpate this pulse)
Where is the popliteal pulse located? Behind the knee
Where is the dorsalis pedis pulse located? Across the arch of the foot, just slightly lateral to the midline, beside the extensor tendon of the great toe
What pulse location is most commonly used? Radial
When performing CPR, what pulse location is used? Carotid
When is the apical pulse location used? Infants, young children, or adults where radial pulse is hard to feel or is irregular.
Where do you check the pulse of a infant or young child when performing CPR? Brachial (in the grove between the biceps & triceps muscles on the inner surface of the mid-upper arm)
When is the brachial pulse used? When taking blood pressure
What is the popliteal pulse used for? Checked by physician with stethoscope if a circulatory system problem such as a blood clot is suspected in the lower leg
When is the dorsalis pedis pulse site used? This area is a good indicator of normal lower limb circulation and arterial sufficiency; Dr. might use for pt with peripheral vascular problems such as those with Diabetes mellitus
What are the three characteristics of pulse? 1 - Rate; 2 - Rhythm; 3 - Volume
What is one pulse that is unpalpable? Subclavian artery
Where is the subclavian pulse located? Under the clavicle
What is orthostatic hypotension? When the pt stands their BP drops (It should go up)
How do you verify pt has orthostatic hypotension? Take BP with pt lying down, sitting up and standing. (All three must be completed within 6 minutes.)
What does pulse oximetry check? Arterial oxygen % in the blood using a finger sensor
What is the normal range for a pulse oximetry reading? 95 - 100%
Give an example of a hypotenive BP reading - 76 / 40
What are the different types of thermometers? 1 - Digital; 2 - Tympanic; 3 - Disposable
What is the fastest way to take a temperature? Tympanic
How would you take the temperature of a child under 3? Tympanic
When taking an axillary temperature, how is the patient placed? Thermometer is placed in axillary fold (Armpit) with patients are down and folded across the abdomen
What is the most common cause of fever? Infection (bacterial or viral)
What temperatures are considered febrile? 1 - Rectal or tympanic over 100.4 degrees; 2 - Oral temperature over 99.5 degrees; 3 - Axillary temperature over 98.6 degrees;
Define fever of unknown origin (FUO) - A fever over 100.9 degrees for three weeks in adult and 1 week in a child without a known related diagnosis
What symptoms often accompany fever? Anorexia (Loss of appetite), headache, thirst, flushed face, hot skin, general malaise
What can high fevers in children cause? Febrile seizures
Name three fever patterns - 1 - Continuous fever; 2 - Intermittent faver; 3 - Remittent fever
What are drugs used to decrease fever called? Antipyretics (Ex: acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin)
What affect do pyrogens have on the physiology of fever? Pyrogens are proteins that can re-set the temperature regulation of the hypothalamus
Why does pyrogens raise the bodies temperature? 1 - It may inhibit some viruses & bacteria; speeds up body metabolism; raised metabolism causes cells to move faster; chemical reactions occur faster; resulting in a faster mobilization of your defenses & faster repair & recovery
Define inflammation - A local tissue response to injury; (It is beneficial & helps the body heal)
What are the three things inflammation does? 1 - Provide temporary repair; 2 - slows the spread of pathogens away from the injured site; 3 - Mobilizes defenses to destroy pathogens & facilitate permanent repair
What is another name for vital signs? Cardinal signs
What are anthropometric measurements? They are not vital signs but are taken at the same time. (Ex: HT, WT, BMI, and other body measurements
What is the control center of pulse & respiration? Melldula
Describe respiration physiology - The melldula stimulates the phrenic nerve which stimulates the diaphragm. When the diaphragm pushes up, air is released, when the diaphragm pushes down the lungs pull air in
Created by: amandmc