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Cog Neuro Exam 1

Localization of Function brain is composed of different subsystems (or modules), located in specific regions of brain tissue (Ibn Sina)
Association areas receive info from multiple modalities, here it is integrated and processed
Central Nervous System brain, spinal cord, nerves
Neurons cells carry info from one place to another by electrical and chemical signals
Glia support cells (guide neurons), modify chemical environment between neurons
Resting Membrane Potential difference in electrical charge between inside and outside of neuron creates a voltage difference
Neurotransmitters chemicals neurons release that allow them to communicate with each other
Gray Matter neurons are arranged in layers that form sheets of tissue, anatomical and functional organization
White Matter large concentrations of myelinated axons, tracts connect distant brain areas
Mototopic Organization areas code for body parts that are close together
Motor Tracts pathways relay info about movements planned in the brain to target muscles (cortex → muscle) - contralateral organization
Neuromuscular Junction synapse between neuron and muscle fibers spinal cord
Primary motor cortex (M1) command signal to drive neurons to make muscles move, movement is represented by direction
Population Vectors vector addition between firing rates of two cells simultaneously, represents direction
Brain-machine Interface machine decodes brains activity to induce movement, surgically implanted
Mirror Neurons active when we perform an action and also when we observe someone else performing the action, fire in premotor cortex
Sensation how sense organs receive info from environment
Perception how brain selects, organizes, and interprets sensations, active and constructive process
Receptive Field specific region of visual space to which a particular cell response (in outside world)
Retina several layers of cells at back of the eye that register light and begin representing the visual world
Horizontal Cells balance neighboring rod and cone cells (turn on and off in different lighting conditions)
Ganglion Cells send info from the eye to the brain (axons make up optic nerve)
Optic Chiasm point where info from eyes crosses over to other side of the brain
Simple Cells lines oriented at particular angle activate
Complex Cells motion activated (directional)
V4 high level perception of color, separate portions coding for upper and lower visual fields
MT neurons have preferred direction and speed
Created by: Eflynn20
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