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Muscle Physiology

Muscle make-up and movement terms

3 Types of Muscle Tissue Smooth, Cardiac, Skeletal
Endomysium Connective tissue membrane covering muscle fibers
Fascicles groups of skeletal muscle fibers
Perimysium tough connective tissue surrounding fascicles
Epimysium coarse sheet of connective tissue that covers a muscle as a whole
Tendon bands or cords of fibrous connective tissue that attatch a muscle to a bone or other structure
Fascia fibrous connective tissue found under skin
Structure of muscle form largest to smallest Muscle-Fascial-Muscle Cells/Fiber-Myofibril-Sacromere-Filaments- Actin(thin) and Mysosin(Thick) filaments
Sarcolemma plasma membrane of muscle fiber
Sarcoplasm muscle fiber's cytoplasm
Sarcoplasmic reticulum network of tubules and sacs in muscle cells; similer to ER of other cells
T-tubules transverse tubules unique to muscle cells; formed by inward extensions of the sarcolemma that allow electrical impulses to move deeper into the cell
myofibrils very fine longitudinal fibers found in skeletal muscle cells; composed of thick and thin filaments
Myosin contractile protein in thick filaments
Actin contractile protien found in thin filaments
Sliding filament theory model of muscle contraction in which sliding of thin filaments toward the center of each sacromere quickly shortens the muscle fiber and thereby the entire muscle
motor neuron transmits nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glandular epithelial tissues
neuromuscular junction point of contact between nerve endings and muscle fibers
motor unit functional unit composed of a single motor neuron with the muscle cells it innervates
Functions of the muscular system Movement, Heat production, Posture
Agonist muscles or group of muscles that directly performs a specific movement
antagonists muscles that when contracting directly oppose prime movers
synergists muscle that contract the same time as the primer mover; help prime movers produce more effective movement
fixator muscles joint stabilizers
Body central body portion of muscle that shortens when muscle contracts
origin point of muscle attatchment to bone that does not move when the muscle is contracted
insertion point of muscle attatchment to bone that moves when the muscle is contracted
Class of Levers first (Ex. Seesaw), second ( wheelbarrow), third (flexing of the forearm at the elbow joint)
How muscles are named location, function, shape, direction of fibers, numbers of heads or division, points of attatchment, size of muscle
Created by: gdemuth