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Cynthia's Anatomy

Chp 1,3

what are the 8 levels of biological organization? 1. atoms 2. molecules 3. organelles 4. cell 5. tissue 6. organ 7. organ tissues 8. organism
What are atoms? tiny blocks of matter
what are molecules? atoms are needed to make molecules which are sugar, water, protein etc
what are organelles? - subunits of a cell (ex.mitochondria, nucleus and membrane etc)
what is a cell? - smallest unit of all living things.
what is tissue? - cells with a similar structure and function.
what is an organ? - two or more tissue types, that perform a specific function for the body. (ex. heart, stomach)
what are organ systems? - group of organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose.
what is the Integumentary system? -external covering of the body -waterproofs the body and cushions and protects the deeper tissues. -excretes salt and urea. -regulate body temp. -hair is protection against insect bites. - protection against sunlight and chemicals
what is purpose of melanin? - gives us our skin color ( dark skin has more melanin) - helps with removal of bacteria.
what is the skeletal system? - gives us our shape, structure and protection to the body. -provides a framework that the skeletal muscles use to provide movement. -hard surface stores minerals.
what is bone matter? -site where blood cells are made.
what is the muscular system? - muscles of the body have only one function to contract or shorten. - muscles are the "machines" of the body.
what is the autonomic nervous system? - controls automatic movement ( heart, blood, smooth muscles etc)
what is the nervous system? - the body's fast acting control system.our bodies are controlled by the nervous and endocrine system. -consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerve and sensory receptors. - brain controls all vital organs. -has immediate and temporary response
how does the body react to stimuli or irritants? What part of the Nervous system is responsible? - the sensory receptors detect any stimuli and send the message through nerve impulses to the CNS where the message is interpreted.
what is the endocrine system? - controls body activities but acts slowly. -hormones (growth reproduction, food used by cells) -slow and permanent.
what is the cardiovascular system? - primary organs are heart and blood vessels. - contain cells that are alive and require energy. -blood is the transport medium. -WBC and chemicals in the blood help to protect the body from foreign invaders (bacteria, toxins and tumor cells)
what is the lymphatic system? - lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen and tonsils. - the lymphatic vessels return fluid leaked from the blood back to the blood vessels. -help with cleansing the blood and immunity. - can flow only upward. - lymph nodes contain WBC.
what is the immune system? - functional system which contain WBC that protect against infection.
what is the gas exchange system? - lungs are upside down trees leaves are alveoli surrounded by blood capillaries.
what is the digestive system? - tube running through the body from mouth to anus. - job is to change insoluble (potato) food to soluble (sugar) food. - indigestible food are eliminated as feces. -
what is the urinary system? - removes nitrogen (urea, uric acid) containing wastes from the blood and flushes from the body in urine. - maintains the body's water and salt balance and regulates the acid/base balance of the blood.
where is urea produced? liver
where does filtration occur? -kidneys - blood passes through kidneys 30-40 times a day.
what is the reproductive system? -function is production of offspring.
what is a cell? - the smallest unit of all living things.
what is semi- permeable? - not all things are allowed to pass.
what is selectively permeable? - selects what goes in the cell or what leaves the cell.
what are cell membrane functions? - controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell. - DNA controls everything in the cell.
what aids in digestion of food? - enzymes
what is the nucleolus? - synthesis and storage of RNA. - RNA is DNA's messenger. - site where ribosomes are assembled.
what are ribosomes? - are assembled in the nucleolus. - actual sites of protein synthesis.
What is smooth ER functions? - folded membranous channels. - intracellular transport - detoxification. - lipid synthesis. - storage of calcium ions - liver cells contain alot of smooth er
what is golgi complex? - acts like a wherehouse receives all of the samples.
what are golgi complex functions? - secretion - storage and modification if necessary and also packaging. - traffic director for all cellular proteins.
what is a lysosome? - sac of splitting enzymes. - can digest any molecule ( proteins, fats etc) - also called suicidal bags.
what is peroxisome? - aids in detoxification - has enzymes (antioxidants) to remove harmful free radicals. - peroxisomes convert free radicals to hydrogen peroxide. - birds carry more detoxifying enzymes which make them live longer. -
what is mitochondria? - powerhouse (makes energy) of the cell. - center for aerobic respiration. - has a double membrane -makes ATP
what is the plasma membrane? - has a phospholipid bilayer (contain proteins) - hydrophobic doesnt like water. - hydrophyllic likes water.
what are parts of the plasma membrane? ( Gloria Gets Purses Purchases By Credit ) - glycolipids. - glycoproteins (sugar proteins) - proteins. - phospholipid bilayer (2 layer) - cholesterol which stabilizes the structure of the plasma membrane.
what are functions of plasma membrane? - osmosis - diffusion ( simple and facilitated) - active transport - endocytosis (phagocytosis) - exocytosis (pinocytosis)
what is osmosis? - movement of water from less water to more water. - water moves from hypotonic to hypertonic solution until they become isotonic (the same).
What is Diffusion? - movement of substances from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. ( ex. I'm drinking a cup of coffee and add a sugar cube and don't stir it. I leave it for a few hours and now my coffee is sweet even though i didn't stir it.
What is Simple Diffusion? - solutes that are able to pass the plasma membrane, able to go through phospholipids.
What is Facilitated Diffusion? - provides passage for certain needed substances (glucose) that are lipid Insoluble and too large to pass through the membrane pores. (uses kinetic energy of the diffusing molecules)
What is Passive (Diffusion) ? - high to low
What is Active (Diffusion) ? - low to high ( cell uses ATP to move substances)
What is Active Transport? - movement of substances from low to high concentration.-cell uses "energy".- transport through "proteins".
What is Endocytosis? - (into the cell) cell is swallowing and taking things in.- some cells don't cross the plasma membrane. - part of vesicular transport, requires ATP.
What is Phagocytosis? - cell swallowing "large, solid" particles.
What is Pinocytosis? - cell swallowing "small, liquid" particles. -unlike phagocytosis, pinocytosis is a routine activity of most cells.
What is Exocytosis? - (out of the cell) cells eliminating waste substances.
What is Mitosis? - formation of two daughter nuclei with the same genes as the mother nuclei. - growth and repair-Asexual reproduction- Duplication and Divison of DNA.duplication must occur for cell to survive.
Stages of Mitosis: What is Interphase? - cell grows and carries out its usual activities - duplication of DNA- conserves energy
What is Prophase? - Nuclear membrane and Nucleolus dissapear.--Chromosomes become short and thick.- centrioles move to opposite poles.- spindle fibers appear between centrioles.
What is Metaphase? - chromosomes line up in middle of the cell.- centromers are lined up.
What is Anaphase? - Centromer divides and choromosomes move to the opposite pole.
What is Telophase? - cell division into two.
What is Epithelial tissue? - coverage and lining of tissue- Innervated (nerve supply) and non- vascularized (no blood supply).
What are Epithelial Cells? - used for protection,secretion,absorption etc.- all glands are modified epithelial tissue.
What is Squamous Epithelial Tissue? - 1 layer simple and strafied.- Simple (blood capillaries)- Stratified (skin)
What is Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue? - has simple and stratified- simple (kidney, tubules)- stratified ( ducts of glands)
What is Columnar Epithelial Tissue? - Simple and stratified.- Simple ( gastro intestinal tract, stomach)-Stratified ( part of male urethra)"not common"
What is Pseudostratified ciliated columnar? - found in the upper respiratory tract or passages.
What is Transitional Epithelium? - found in urinary bladder.
What is Tight Junctions (part of epithelial tissue) ? - do not pull apart.- found on skin.
What is Gap Junctions? - ions move in between gaps to communicate.- found in the heart.
What is Desmosomes? - anchoring junctions that prevent cells from being pulled apart (skin cells).
What is apocrine? - cell pinch off.
How many parts does Connective tissue have? - 3 1. matrix- ground substance (minerals, hyaluronic acid)- fibers (collagen, reticular, and elastic)- Collagen (strong and thickest)-Reticular (network)-elastic (elasticity and thinnest.)3. cells (fat cells, wbc,fibrocytes etc)
What are the types of connective tissue? 1. Loose 2. Dense 3. Cartilage4. bone 5. blood
Created by: cynthianunez24



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