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A&P2 Test 2 Concepts

Mrs Fletcher Test 2 Weatherford College

ConceptExplaination
Know how the pressure gradient is produced and controlled within a nephron To increase the pressure, the Afferent artery leading to the glomerulus is dialated and the Efferent artery leading away is constricted. To decrease the pressure, the opposite applies: Afferent contricts and Efferent dialates.
Know the flow of blood through the kidney Renal arteries --> interlobar arteries --> arcuate arteries --> interlobular --> afferent arterioles --> efferent arterioles --> peritubular capillaries --> interlobular veins --> renal veins --> inferior vena cava
Know the Embryonic development of the kidneys Three pairs form in the intermediate mesoderm: PRONEPHROS degenerate by the 4th week, MESONEPHROS are structurally advanced to where they could work, but they don't degenerate by the 8th week, and METANONEPHROS develop into adult kidneys
Know the flow of urine through the urinary system papillae-->minor calyces-->major calyces--> renal pelvis --> ureter --> urinary bladder --> urethra --> toilet (hopefully)
Glomerular filtration filtration of plasma by the glomerular capillaries, produces 180L of fluid per day. All molecules present are forced into the bowmans capsule EXCEPT formed elements of blood, large proteins and just enough water to keep the blood moving.
glomerular pressure normal pressure is 75mmHg, pressure lower than 50mmHg will cause glomerular filtration to cease.
tubular reabsorption in the proximal convuluted tubule Process where stuff body can use is put back, most reabsorption occurs in the proximal convuluted tubule. Most items absorbed are by active transport
tubular resorption in the loop of henle Most sodium ions are reabsorbed. Sodium reabsorption can be controlled by aldosterone
tubular filtration in the distal convoluted tubule This is where pH is refined, the distal convoluted tubule is almost impermeable to water unless ADH is present.
tubular secretion fine tuning occurs here, substances move from the plasma to the peritubular capillary bed in the renal tubule.
Know the function of the nasal conchae Three of them work to increase surface area, cool the blood and warms the air entering the body.
Know the flow of air through the lungs Mouth/Nose--> Trachea --> L/R Primary bronchi --> secondary bronchi --> tertiary bronchi --> interlobular bronchioles --> terminal bronchioles --> respiratory bronchioles --> alveolar ducts
Know the effects of hyperventilation CO2 levels get too low, CO2 is tied to pH, (as CO2 DECREASES, pH INCREASES), hyperventilation also causes vasoconstriction, dizziness and fainting.
Know the volume of blood that passes through the kidney 1,100 ml of blood passes through the kidney per minute
Know the volume of filtrate the kidney produces 180L of filtrate is produced per day
Know the volume of urine produced by the kidney 0.6L - 2.5L of urine are produced daily.
Know the average capacity of the bladder 700-800ml
Created by: DevilDoc