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MC Bio 204 Ch 9

articulations

QuestionAnswer
gliding movement of relatively flat bone surfaces back-and-forth and from side-to-side over one another; little change in the angle between bones
angular movements increase or decrease in the angle between bones
types of angular movements flexion, lateral flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, circumduction
flexion decrease in the angle between articulating bones, usually in the sagittal plane
lateral flexion movement of the trunk within the frontal plane [e.g., leaning sideways to touch the side of the calf]
extension increase in the angle between articulating bones, usually in the sagittal plane
hyperextension extension beyond the anatomical position
abduction movement of a bone away from the midline, usually in the frontal plane [e.g., raising arms so that they're perpendicular to the trunk]
adduction movement of a bone toward the midline, usually in the frontal plane
circumduction flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction in succession, in which the distal end of a body part moves in a circle
rotation movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis; in the limbs, it may be medial (toward the midline) or lateral (away from the midline)
special movements occur at specific joints
elevation superior movement of a body part
depression inferior movement of a body part
protraction anterior movement of a body part in the transverse plane [e.g., jutting the lower jaw forward]
retraction posterior movement of a body part in the transverse plane
eversion lateral movement of the sole so that it faces away from the other foot
inversion medial movement of the sole so that it faces the other foot
dorsiflexion bending the foot in the direction of the dorsum (superior surface)
plantar flexion bending the foot in the direction of the plantar surface (sole)
supination movement of the forearm that turns the palm anteriorly
pronation movement of the forearm that turns the palm posteriorly
opposition movement of the thumb across the palm to touch fingertips on the same hand
articular menisci in certain joints, pads of fibrocartilage that lie between the articular surfaces of the bones || EX/medial and lateral ---- of the knee
articular cartilage covers the articular surfaces of the bones at a synovial joint
synovial fluid L/within the synovial cavities of synovial joints || A/resembles uncooked egg white || F/reducing friction by lubricating the joint, absorbing shocks, supplying oxygen and nutrients to the chondrocytes within the articular cartilage
bursae small saclike structures strategically situated to alleviate friction in some joints || EX/shoulder and knee joints
bursitis the inflammation of one or more bursae; often caused by repetitive activity
rheumatoid arthritis an autoimmune disorder; much rarer than osteoarthritis; synovial membrane thickens into a pannus; often leads to ankylosis [the fusion of the ends of articulating bones]
osteoarthritis "wear-and-tear arthritis" || affects approx 85% of U.S. population || sometimes results in bone spurs
arthritis broad term for a group of conditions that involve damage to joints
dislocation the displacement or misalignment of bones in a joint || often caused by a sudden impact
sprain an injury to ligaments caused by their being stretched beyond normal capacity and possibly torn
strain the tearing of muscle fibers as a result of overstretching || aka "pulled muscle"
Created by: dglenn34