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MC Bio 204 ch 11

muscular system

zygomaticus major O/zygomatic bone | I/skin at angle of mouth and orbicularis orbis
masseter O/maxilla and zygomatic arch | I/angle and ramus of mandible
sternocleidomastoid O/sternum and clavicle | I/mastoid process of temporal bone
pectoralis major O/clavicle, sternum, and costal cartilages of the second to sixth ribs | I/greater tubercle and lateral lip of the intertubular sulcus of humerus
deltoid O/acromial extremity of clavicle (anterior fibers), acromion of scapula (lateral fibers), and spine of scapula (posterior fibers) | I/deltoid tuberosity of humerus
action of the zygomaticus major draws angle of mouth superiorly and laterally, as in smiling
action of the masseter elevates mandible, as in closing mouth
action of the sternocleidomastoid acting together (bilaterally), flex cervical portion of vertebral column, flex head; acting singly (unilaterally), laterally extend and rotate head to side opposite contracting muscle
action of the pectoralis major as a whole, adducts and medially rotates arm at shoulder joint; clavicular head flexes arm
action of the deltoid lateral fibers abduct arm at shoulder joint; anterior fibers flex and medially rotate arm at shoulder joint; posterior fibers extend and laterally rotate arm at shoulder joint
biceps brachii O/long head: tubercle above glenoid cavity of scapula; short head: coracoid process of scapula | I/radial tuberosity of radius and bicipital aponeurosis
action of the biceps brachii flexes forearm at elbow joint, supinates forearm at radioulnar joints, and flexes arm at shoulder joint
pronator teres O/medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna | I/midlateral surface of radius
action of the pronator teres pronates forearm at radioulnar joints and weakly flexes forearm at elbow joint
flexor carpi radialis O/medial epicondyle of humerus | I/second and third metacarpals
action of the flexor carpi radialis flexes and abducts hand (radial deviation) at wrist joint
psoas major O/transverse processes and bodies of lubar vertebrae | I/with iliacus into lesser trochanter of femur
action of the psoas major psoas major and iliacus muscles acting together flex thigh at hip joint, rotate thigh laterally, and flex trunk on hip as in sitting up from supine position
gluteus maximus O/ileac crest, sacrum, coccyx, and aponeurosis of sacrospinalis | I/iliotibial crest of fascia lata and lateral part of linea aspera (gluteal tuberosity) under greater trochanter of femur
action of the gluteus maximus extends thigh at hip joint and laterally rotates thigh
gluteus medius O/ileum | I/greater trochanter of femur
action of the gluteus medius abducts thigh at hip joint and medially rotates thigh
rectus femoris [part of the quadriceps femoris] O/anterior inferior ileac spine | I/patella via quadriceps tendon and then tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
action of the rectus femoris extends leg at knee joint; flexes thigh at hip joint
semimembranosus O/ischial tuberosity | I/medial condyle of tibia
action of the semimembranosus flexes leg at knee joint and extends thigh at hip joint
gastrocnemius O/lateral and medial condyles of femur and capsule of knee | I/calcaneus by way of calcaneal (Achilles) tendon
action of the gastrocnemius plantar flexes foot at ankle joint and flexes leg at knee joint
belly the fleshy portion of the muscle between the tendons
origin the attachment of a muscle's tendon to the stationary bone
insertion the attachment of a muscle's tendon to movable bone [the origin is usually proximal and the insertion is usually distal]
prime mover, aka agonist a muscle that causes a desired action
antagonist a muscle that relaxes as the agonist contracts; stretches and yields to the movement of the agonist
synergists muscles that contract and stabilize the intermediate joints when an agonist is acting on a joint that is multiple joints away from the agonist's origin [e.g., stabilizing wrist when certain muscles with origins high up the arm act on the fingers
action of the frontalis (occipitofrontalis frontal belly) raises eyebrow, wrinkles forehead
action of the orbicularis orbis closes and protrudes lips
action of the orbicularis oculi closes eye
action of the temporalis elevates mandible
action of the rectus abdominis compresses abdomen, flexes vertebral column
action of the external oblique unilaterally: rotates vertebral column || bilaterally: compress abdomen and flex verterbral column
action of the erector spinae extends vertebral column
action of the diaphragm increases size of thoracic cavity for inspiration
action of the external intercostals elevates ribs for inspiration
action of the internal intercostals depresses ribs for expiration
action of the pectoralis major pulls scapula anteriorly and downward
action of the serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
action of the trapezius elevates, depresses, and adducts scapula || extends neck (moves head back)
action of the latissimus dorsi extends and adducts arm at shoulder; depresses shoulder
action of the teres major extends and adducts arm at shoulder
action of the triceps brachii extends forearm at elbow
action of the supinator supinates forearm
action of the flexor digitorum superficialis flexes fingers
action of the extensor digitorum extends fingers
action of the extensor carpi ulnaris extends and adducts wrist
action of the iliacus flexes hip, flexes vertebral column
action of the adductor longus flexes and adducts hip
action of the gracilis adducts hip, flexes knee
action of the vastus lateralis extends knee
action of the vastus medialis extends knee
action of the vastus intermedius extends knee
action of the sartorius flexes hip and knee; laterally rotates hip
action of the biceps femoris extends hip, flexes knee
action of the semitendinosus extends hip, flexes knee
action of the tibialis anterior dorsiflexion and inversion of foot at ankle
Created by: dglenn34



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