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A & P MS2 MOD 1

Integumentary System

Integument The structures that cover the exposed surfaces of the body.
Major structures that make up the Integument Skin and Auxiliary Appendages.
The skin is the largest organ of the body, it varies in depth over the body, if it is kept clean it is the body's first line of defense against disease,- it connects to mucous membranes where it joins body cavities, its color is the result of melanin and the amount of blood near the surface.
Melanin A protein that absorbs ultraviolet light to give coloration to body structures; also referred to as pigment.
Functions of the skin Provides a mechanical barrier against microorganisms, sunlight, and chemicals to protect; house nerve endings that pain,temperature, touch, and pressure;Helps to regulate temperature; excretes waste materials; Helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance.
Major structures of the skin Epidermis, Dermis, Dermal epidermal, hypodermis.
Epidermis the this, nonvascular, nonsensitive outermost layer of skin, consisting of stratified squamous epithelial tissue and including as the greater part of its thickness dead cells that are scraped off and replaced by the underlying cells.
Dermis The thick, vascular, sensitive layer of the skin just below the epidermis, consisting of dense, fibrous connective tissue and containing the auxiliary appendages of the skin.
Dermal Epidermal A polysaccharide gel with fibrous structures that serve as a cement to hold the layers of the skin together.
Vascular Containing blood or lymph vessels.
Sensitive Containing nerve endings and, therefore, can feel sensation.
Polysaccharide A carbohydrate that contains three or more molecules of simple carboydrates.
Hypodermis The layer of areolar tissue and fat that lies beneath the dermis and exhibits varying amounts of fat content depending of factors such as body location, gender, nutrition, and health.
Areolar tissue A kind of connective tissue that having little tensile strength and consisting of loosely woven fibers and areolae.
Areola A small space or a cavity within a tissue.
Subcutaneous Beneath the skin.
Fascia the fibrous connective tissue of the body.
Layers of the epidermis Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum germinativum.
Stratum corneum The outermost layer of the epidermis where dead cells have been converted into keratin that continually flakes off.
Stratum Lucidum The water repellent, transparent inner layer of the epidermis found only on the layers of the palms of the hands and the souls of the feet.
Stratum the Latin term for "layer".
Corneum the Latin term for "horn".
Keratin A fibrous, sulfur containing protein that is the primary component of the epidermis, hair, nails, and enamel of the teeth.
Lucidum The Latin term for "clear".
Stratum Granulosum The inner layer of the epidermis with dying cells that develop granules of keratohyalin in their cytoplasm.
Granulosum the Latin term for "granular".
Keratohyalin A precursor for deratin.
Precusor A substance from which another substance is formed; a condition that leads to another condition.
Stratum Spinosum The keratin synthesizing inner layer of the epidermis characterized by pronounced desmosomes that give the appearance of spikes running between the cells.
Spinosum The Latin term for "Spiny".
Desmosome A small, circular, dense area within the intercellular bridge that forms the site of adhesion between certain epithelial cells, especially of the epidermis.
Stratum Germinativum The innermost layer of the epidermis where columnar cells continually undergo mitosis to make new cells and push older cells outward.
Germinativum the Latin word for "germination".
Basale The Latin term for "Base layer".
Layers of the Dermis Papillary and reticular layer.
Papillary layer the outer layer of the dermis that lies next to the basal layer of the epidermis and is patterned with papillae and hollows.
Papilla A protrusion that extends into the epidermal area.
Reticular Layer the inner layer of the dermis that forms a network of interlacing cells and fibers, making this layer tough and elastic.
Auxiliary Appendage A formation of specialized cells within the skin that performs a particular function.
Hair grows from a follicle in the skin; at the base of the follicle is a bundle of stratum germinativum cells known as the germinal matrix; a dermal papilla joins the germinal matrix with capillaries that support the mitosis of the germinal matrix cells.
Arrector Pili Muscles are attached to the follicles.
Follicle A tube that extends from the dermis through the epidermis and to the surface of the skin.
Arrector Pili Muscle Bundles of involuntary muscle fiber that contract against the follicle when the skin is cold or during certain emotional states, causing the hair shaft to stand upright; also called pilomotor muscle.
A hair consists of a part that protrudes from the skin, called the shaft, and a subdermal section called the root.
Hair color results from pigment within the shaft.
Hair is kept soft by sebum that is secreted by two or more sebaceous glands.
Sebum The oily secretion of the sebaceous glands of the skin; composed of keratin, fat, and cellular debris.
Sebaceous Gland The gland that is connected to the dermal shaft that surrounds the root of a hair.
Hair is found on all outer parts of the body except the penis and the contact areas of the hands and feet.
Hair on all humans has little practical function except for the eyelashes, nasal hairs, and hair on the ears, all of which provide some level of protection against dust and foreign matter.
Hair grows approximately 1/2 inch (13 millimeters) per month.
Nails consist of epidermal cells that have been converted to keratin.
Nails grow from epithelial cells lying under the lunula at the proximal end of a nail.
the region under a nail is called the subungual area (nail bed).
the skin surrounding the nail is called the cuticle.
Lunula the Latin term meaning "little moon"; the crescent shaped white area at the base of the nail.
Cuticle the thin edge of cornified epithelium at the base of a nail.
Sebaceous glands secrete sebum to lubricate and soften hair shafts; prevent excessive water evaporation and water absorption through the skin; lessen the amount of heat lost through the skin.
Sweat Glands a small structure located in the deep layers of the dermis with a duct that exits through a pore in the epidermis; the gland consists of a coiled tube surrounded by capillaries.
Sweat Glands help to maintain homeostasis of fluids and electrolytes and body temperature; excrete nitrogenous wastes.
Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen.
Types of nerve endings found in the skin touch, pressure, heat, cold, and pain.
Acne an infection and inflammation of the sebaceous glands.
Hive A suddenly appearing raised patch that is usually redder than the surrounding skin; is often accompanied by severe itching; and is usually caused by an allergic reaction, infection, or stress.
Decubitis Ulcer A pressure sore that is frequently found on the sacrum, elbows, and heels.
Sacrum the large triangular bone at the dorsal part of the pelvis, inserted like a wedge between the two hip bones.
Furuncle An inflammation and infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue caused by bacteria that enter the skin through a hair follicle; a boil.
Vesicle a blister.
Nodule a small, solid, irregularly shaped cluster of cells.
Polyp a growth that extends into the lumen of a mucous membrane or appears on the skin.
Pustule an elevation of skin filled with pus.
Lumen A cavity, especially in a tubular organ or structure.
Pus an accumulation of white blood cells, pathogens, dead or damaged cells, and other substances associated with an infection.
Cyst A sac that contains any fluid substance other than pus.
Fissure A cleft of groove in the skin or tissue.
Ulcer A loss of substance on a cutaneous or mucous surface.
Paronychia an infection of the fold of skin at the margin of a nail.
Onycholysis A condition of the nail separating from the nail bed, usually caused by stress to long nails.
Created by: llc1980



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