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Philosophy Exam 2

Phenomenology Reality is revealed through our consciousness.
Edmund Husserl Bracketing sets aside judgements for consciousness in phenomenology.
Heidegger Dasein means "being there."
Existentialism The self is found in action.
Soren Kierkegaard Overcome the anxiety by leaping towards God.
Jean-Paul Sartre "Existence precedes essence."
Determinism Human actions are completely determined by prior events.
Libertarianism People are free to have control over their actions.
Compatibilism You are free within the boundaries of what is determined.
Augustine Only the present is real.
Immanuel Kant Time is a mental construct
J.M.E. McTaggart A-Series is subjective, while B-Series is objective.
Henri Bergson Subjective time is real where it's an abstraction.
Ninian Amart's Traits of Religion Doctrine, Experience, Myth, Ritual, Morality, and Organization.
Theology Studying religion in a biased way with a theistic God.
Spirituality Your individual religious experiences and practices.
Pascal's Wager Go to heaven if you believe in God, go to hell if you don't believe in God, and nothing happens if God does not exist.
Monotheism The belief in one God.
Polytheism The belief in many Gods.
Henotheism The belief in many Gods with one chief God.
Theism The belief in an active, personal God.
Deism The belief in an absent God.
Atheism The belief in no God.
Pantheism The belief that God is everything.
Pantheism The belief that everything is in God.
The Ontological Argument The Anselm of Canterbury where thinking of God causes him to exist.
Velasquez God is that which nothing greater can be conceived."
The Cosmological Argument Thomas Aquinas with the unmoved mover as the cause of the universe.
The Design Argument Order is evident in the universe, meaning a God made it.
William Paley The divine watchmakers that everything in nature was designed for a purpose.
The Anthropic Principle The universe is carefully designed, which is backed up by science.
Evolution Random selection over a long period of time seems to mirror design.
William Dembski The universe has intelligent design as found in the complexity of the human body.
The Problem of Evil (SA Question) God is all powerful, God is all good, and evil exists.
Natural Evil The destruction caused by nature that wasn't free will.
Agnosticism We don't know if God exists or not.
Sigmund Freud We feel the need to believe in a Father watching us.
William James The will to believe in God is a choice.
Mystical Experience Experiences that go beyond basic ones that has ineffability and is noetic.
Mysticism Direct experience with a religious reality.
Numinous Experience Mystical consciousness of the holy that has mystery and bliss.
Radical Theology Our experience with God is more radical than rational.
Paul Tillich God is the ground of being or the source of our ultimate concern.
Feminist Theology The Western perception of God as sexist towards females.
Hinduism brahman is the only reality, while atman is the doctrine of no self.
Karma You reap what you sow.
Buddhism The four noble truths that help you overcome craving.
Zen Buddhism The action of involving yourself in an experience instead of just believing it from others.
East versus Western Religion Western in more rule-based than Eastern.
Philosophy The love of wisdom.
Epistemology The study of knowledge.
Habit Memory Remembering how to do something.
Personal Memory bringing a representation of the past events into consciousness.
Factual Memory Facts you have acquired but not necessarily experienced.
Rationalism Reason is the source of knowledge.
Descartes Doubt and reason go together to determine knowledge with "I think therefore I am."
Innate Ideas Ideas that are present in the mind from birth.
Plato's Meno When we are born into this imperfect world, we carry those perfect ideas within un, buried in the depths of memory.
Gottfried Leibniz We are born with the capacity to form ideas, but they must mature through experience.
Jainism Soul but no God where we perceive before our senses, then release it with ahimsa.
Empiricism Knowledge comes from sense experience with priori (rational thought) and posteriori (after experience).
John Locke We have a tabula rasa where the mind is a blank slate.
Primary and Secondary Qualities Objective qualities are primary, while subjective qualities are secondary, like texture.
Berkley Only the mind and ideas exist, meaning subjectivism.
Hume We have skepticism where we have impressions from our senses and ideas from those senses; causality doesn't exist.
Transcendental Idealism The world the mind produces is one based on the structures/patterns within the mind.
Causality This comes from Kant where we live life as a wholistic enterprise, not by snapshots.
Phenomenalism We perceive the world as it is constructed by our minds.
Noumena We don't perceive the world as it is itself.
Romantic Philosophers They used Kant's theories but changed the categories to make them culturally driven.
Constructivist Reality as we know it is constructed by us.
Inductionism The inductive method that we generalize from observations, relating to the scientific method.
Karl Popper Hypothesis must be falsified by empirical observations, and scientific knowledge is always open to revision.
Thomas Kuhn Science is a social activity that changes over time.
Science versus Pseudoscience (SA Question) Science must be based on observation and rationality, relies on the inductive method for low level laws, proceeds by hypotheses and observation, must be falsifiable, and is widely accepted in the scientific community.
Empirical-Rational Method Science that explains the world, not religion or morals.
Does God Exist (SA Question)? Freud believes that God is an illusion because we feel the need to believe in. Kant believes that you should not reject the idea of God if good things happen to bad people.
Created by: MEDeBulten
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