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Joints and Body Move

fibrous joints the bones are joined by fibrous tissues
sutures irregular edges of the bones interlock and are united by very short connective tissue fibers
syndesmoses articulating bones are connected by short ligaments of dense fibrous tissue; the bones do not interlock
cartilaginous joints the articulating bone ends are connected by a plate or pad of cartilage
symphyses bones are connected by a broad, flat disc of fibrocartilage
synchondroses the bony portions are united by hyaline cartilage
synovial joints those in which the articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid
plane articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved, allowing sliding movements in one or two planes
hinge rounded process of one bone fits into the concave surface of another to allow movement in one plan, usually flexion and extension
pivot rounded or conical surface of one bone articulates with a shallow depression or foramen in another bone
condyloid oval condyle of one bone fits into an ellipsoidal depression in another bone
saddle articulating surfaces are saddle-shaped; the articulating surface of one bone is convex, and the reciprocal surface is concave
ball and socket ball-shaped head of one bone fits into a cuplike depression of another
flexion a movement, generally in the sagittal plane, that decreases the angle of the joint and reduces the distance between the two bones
extension a movement that increases the angle of a joint and the distance between two bones or parts of the body; opposite of flexion
abduction movement of a limb away from the midline or median plane of the body, generally on the frontal plane
adduction movement of a limb toward the midline of the body; the opposite of abduction
rotation movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis without lateral or medial displacement
circumduction a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction commonly observed in ball-and-socket joints like the shoulder
pronation movement of the palm of the hand from an anterior or upward-facing position to a posterior or downward-facing position
supination movement of the palm from a posterior position ot an anterior position; the opposite of pronation
inversion a movement that results in the medial turning of the sole of the foot
eversion a movement that results in the lateral turning of the sole of the foot; opposite of inversion
dorsiflexion a movement of the ankle joint in a dorsal direction
plantar flexion a movement of the ankle joint in wich the foot is flexed downward
hip joint a synovial joint that is a ball and socket joint so movements can occur in all possible planes
knee joint a synovial joint that is the largest and most complex joint in the body
shoulder joint a synovial joint that is the most freely moving joint of the body
temporomandibular joint lies just anterior to the ear, where the egg-shaped condyle of the mandible articulates with the inferior surface of the squamous region of the temporal bone
Created by: wacdmc



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