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Axial Skeleton Lab

QuestionAnswer
skull consists of the cranium and facial bones
cranium encloses and protects the fragile brain tissue
facial bones present the eyes anterior position and form the base for the facial muscles
frontal bone anterior portion of the cranium; forms the forehead, superior part of the orbit, and the floor of the anterior cranial fossa
supraorbital foramen (notch) opening above each orbit allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass
glabella smooth area between the eyes
parietal bones posterolateral to the frontal bone, forming sides of the cranium
sagittal suture midline articulation point of the two parietal bones
coronal suture point of articulation of parietals with frontal bone
temporal bone inferior to parietal bone on the lateral skull.
squamous suture point of articulation of the temporal bone with the parietal bone
zygomatic process a bridgelike projection joining the zygomatic bone (cheekbone) anteriorly.
mandibular fossa rounded depression on the inferior surface of the zygomatic process (anterior to the ear)
external acoustic meatus canal leading to eardrum and middle ear
styloid process needlelike projection inferior to external acoustic meatus; attachment point for muscles and ligaments of the neck. m
mastoid process rough projection inferior and posterior to external acoustic meatus; attchment site for muscles.
stylomastoid foramen tiny opening between the mastoid and styloid processes through which cranial nerve VII leaves the cranium
jugular foramen opening medial to the styloid process through which the internal jugular vein and cranial nerves IX, X, and XI pass
carotid canal opening medial to the styloid process through which the internal carotid artery passes into the cranial cavity
interal acoustic meatus opening on the posterior aspect of temporal bone allowing passage of cranial nerves VII and VIII
foramen lacerum a jagged opening between the petrous temporal bone and the sphenoid providing passage for a number of small nerves and for the internal carotid artery to enter the middle cranial fossa
occipital bone most posterior bone of cranium - forms floor and back wall
lamboid suture site of articulation of occipital bone and parietal bones
foramen magnum large opening in base of occipital, which allows the spinal cord to join with the brain
occipital condyles rounded projections lateral to the foramen magnum that articulate with the first cervical vertebra
hypoglossal canal opening medial and superior to the occipital condyle through which the hypoglossal nerve passes
external occipital crest and protuberance midline prominences posterior to the foramen magnum
sphenoid bone bat-shaped bone forming the anterior plateau of the middle cranial fossa across the width of the skull
greater wings portions of the sphenoid seen exteriorly anterior to the temporal and forming a part of the eye orbits
superior orbital fissures jagged openings in orbits providing passage for cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI to enter the orbit where they serve the eye
sella turcica a saddle-shaped region in the sphenoid midline which nearly encloses the pituitary gland.
lesser wing bat-shaped portions of the sphenoid anterior to the sella turcica
optic canals openings in the bases of the lesser wings through which the optic nerves enter the orbits to serve the eyes
foramen rotundum opening lateral to the sella turcica providing passage for a branch of the fifth cranial nerve
foramen ovale opening posterior to the sella turcica that allows passage of the branch of the fifth cranial nerve
ethmoid bone irregularly shaped bone anterior to the sphenoid
crista galli vertical projection providing a point of attachment for the dura mater, helping to secure the brain within the skull
cribriform plates bony plates lateral to the crista galli through which olfactory fibers pass to the brain from the nasal mucosa
perpendicular plate inferior projection of the ethmoid that forms the superior part of the nasal septum
lateral masses irregularly shaped thin-walled bony regions flanking the perpendicular plate laterally
superior and middle nasal conchae thin, delicately coiled plates of bone extending medially from the lateral masses of the ethmoid into the nasal cavity
mandible the lower jawbone which articulates with the temporal bones in the only freely movable joints of the skull
mandibular body horizontal portion; forms the chin
mandibular ramus vertical extension of the body on either side
mandibular condyle articulation point of the mandible with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone
coronoid process jutting anterior portion of the ramus; site of muscle attachment
mandibular angle posterior point at which ramus meets the body
mental foramen prominent opening on the body that transmits the mental blood vessels and nerve to the lower jaw
mandibular foramen permits passage of the nerve involved with tooth sensation and is the site where the dentist injects Novocain
alveolar margin superior margin of mandible, contains sockets in which the teeth lie
mandibular symphysis anterior median depression indicating point of mandible fusion
maxillae two bones fused in a median suture; form the upper jawbone and part of the orbits
palatine processes form the anterior hard plate
infraorbital foramen opening under the orbit carrying infraorbital nerves and blood vessels to the nasal region
incisive fossa large bilateral opening located posterior to the central incisor tooth of the maxilla and piercing the hard palate
lacrimal bone fingernail sized bones forming a part of the medial orbit walls between maxilla and the ethmoid
palatine bone paired bones posterior to the palatine processes; form posterior hard palate and part of the orbit
zygomatic bone lateral to the maxilla; forms the portion of the face commonly called the cheekbone, and forms part of the lateral orbit
nasal bone small rectangular bones forming the bridge of the nose
vomer blade-shaped bone in median plane of nasal cavity that forms the posterior and inferior nasal septum
inferior nasal conchae thin curved bones protruding medially from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity; serve the same purpose as the turbinate portions of the ethmoid bone
skull two sets of bones that includes the cranium and facial bones
vertebral column extending from the skull to the pelvis, forms the body's major axial support
cervical vertebrae 1st vertebra is atlas, 2nd vertebra is axis
thoracic vertebrae larger body than the cervical vertebrae. The body is somewhat heart-shaped, with two articulating surfaces on each side close to the origin of the vertebral arch
lumbar vertebrae massive blocklike bodies and short, thick, hatchet shaped spinous processes extending directly backward
spinous process single medial and posterior projection from the vertebral arch
transverse process two lateral projections from the vertebral arch
lamina two broad plates extending dorsally and medially from the pedicles, fusing to complete the roof of the vertebral arch
pedicle two short thick processes which project backwards one on either side, from the upper part of the body, at the junction of its posterior and lateral surfaces
verebral(spinal) foramen opening enclosed by the body and vertebral arch; a conduit for the spinal cord
body (centrum) rounded central portion of the vertebra, which faces anteriorly in the human vertebral column
superior articular process paried projections lateral to the vertebral foramen that enable articulation with adjacent vertebrae. The superior articular processes typically face toward the spinous process(posteriorly).
inferior articular process paried projections lateral to the vertebral foramen that enable articulation with adjacent vertebrae. The inferior articular processes face (anteriorly) away from the spinous process
intervertebral foramen the right and left pedicles have notches on their inferiorand superior surfaces that create openings for spinal nerves to leave the spinal cord between adjacent vertebrae
articular facets a relatively small articular surface of a bone, especially a vertebra
sacrum vertebrae a composit bone formed from the fusion of five vertebrae
bony thorax the sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae
sternum breastbone
jugular notch concave upper border of the manubrium
clavicular notch a notch on each side of the upper part of the manubrium that is the site of articulation with a clavicle
manubrium the broad, upper part of the sternum
body (gladiolus) main part of the sternum
xiphoid process constructs the inferior end of the sternum and lies at the level of the fifth intercostal space
Created by: wacdmc