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Ch 22 Lymphatic

Water plus solutes from plasma & cells; Returns to circulatory system via veins; essential for fluid balance. lymph
Carry lymph away from tissues; valves insure one way flow lymphatic vessels
More permeable than blood capillaries,Epithelium functions as series of one-way valves,found in all parts of the body except nervous system, bone marrow, and tissues without blood vessels Lymphatic capillaries
distributed along vessels and filter lymph; Substances removed by phagocytosis or stimulate lymphocytes to proliferate in germinal centers; Cancer cells often migrate to lymph nodes, are trapped there, and proliferate. lymph nodes
jugular, subclavian, bronchomediastinal, intestinal, lumbar lymphatic trunks
drain tissues of body and move lymph into major veins lymphatic ducts
drains right side of head, right-upper limb, right thorax Right lymphatic duct
drains remainder of the body Thoracic duct
contain lymphatic tissue (lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells); fine collagen reticular fibers trap microorganisms and other particles lymphatic organs
lymph nodes, spleen, thymus Encapsulated lymph organs
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Found beneath epithelium as first line of attack against invaders. Unencapsulated lymph organs
dispersed lymphocytes, macrophages; blends with other tissues. Associated with other types of lymphatic tissue diffuse lymphatic tissue
denser aggregations. Numerous in loose connective tissue of digestive (Peyer’s patches), respiratory, urinary, reproductive systems (MALT); Referred to as lymphatic follicles when found in lymph nodes and the spleen Lymphatic nodules
Large groups of lymphatic nodules in nasopharynx and oral cavity; Provide protection against bacteria and other harmful material. Form a ring around the border between the oral cavity and the pharynx tonsils
Destroys defective RBCs; Detects and responds to foreign substances; Limited reservoir for blood spleen
Site of maturation of T cells: many T cells produced here, but most degenerate. Those that remain can react to foreign substances, but not to healthy body tissue. thymus
Ability to resist damage from foreign substances such as microorganisms and harmful chemicals immunity
Mechanical mechanisms: prevent entry or remove microbes. Skin, tears, saliva, mucous membranes, mucus. Considered the acid mantle;Chemical mediators: promote phagocytosis and inflammation; Cells: involved in phagocytosis and production of chemicals Innate or nonspecific resistance
Specificity: ability to recognize a particular substance; Memory: ability to remember previous encounters with a particular substance and respond rapidly Adaptive or specific immunity
20 proteins that circulate in blood in inactive form; become activated in cascade form & can form membrane attack complexes, make channel through plasma mem, attach to surface of bact cells, stim phagocytosis, attract immune syst cells to site of infectio complement
part of innate immunity. C3 binds with foreign substance. Attract macrophages. Alternative pathway
part of adaptive immunity. Requires antibodies bound to antigens Classical pathway
Prevent viral replication; produced by infected cell, but cause neighboring cells to produce antiviral proteins, thus act as a paracrine. Interferons
most important cellular components of immune system. Must be able to move into infected tissues and destroy infection White blood cells
Phagocytic and first cells to enter infected tissue; last only a few hours; Regularly cross wall of gastrointestinal tract, providing protection. 126 billion/day Neutrophils
large phagocytic cellsMonocytes that leave blood, enter tissues. Longer-lived than neutrophils, can ingest larger particles; Found beneath free surfaces within sinuses (spleen, bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes). Macrophages
Promote inflammation when activated by innate or adaptive system. Basophils and mast cells
leave blood and enter tissues; Reduce inflammation by breaking down chemicals produced by basophils and mast cells.Secrete enzymes that kill some parasites Eosinophils
type of lymphocytes; Lyse tumor and virus-infected cells; Recognize whole classes of cells, not specific kind of cell. Natural killer cells
Response initiated by chemical mediators that produce vasodilation, chemotactic attraction, increased vascular permeability. The latter allows fibrinogen and complement to enter tissue. Fibrinogen converted to fibrin, walls off infected area Inflammatory Response
confined to a specific area of the body. Symptoms are redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of function Local Inflammatory Response
Increase in neutrophil #s released by RBM;Fever due to production of pyrogens; Improves performance of immune system.Widespread increased vascular permeability due to histamines. Large volume of plasma enters interstitial spaces leading to shock Systemic Inflammatory Response
not produced by body, introduced from outside; Bacteria, viruses, other microorganisms that cause disease; Pollen, animal dander, feces of mites, foods, drugs cause overreaction of immune system called allergic reaction foreign antigens (adaptive immunity)
produced by body. Used as markers to allow adaptive immune response to differentiate self from non-self. Response to self tumor antigens helpfulResponse to self-antigens resulting in tissue destruction: auto immune diseases Self-antigens (adapt imm)
small molecules, combine with large proteins and producing an adaptive immune response Haptens (adapt imm)
Humoral or Antibody-mediated B cells
Cell-mediated T cells
Ensures survival of lymphocytes that react against antigens. These then proliferate and form clones Positive selection
Eliminates clones of lymphocytes that react against self-antigens Negative selection
state of unresponsiveness of lymphocytes to a specific antigen, usually to self antigens. Provoked by deletion of self-reactive lymphocytes, preventing activation of lymphocytes that encounter self antigens, activation of suppressor T cells tolerance
lymphocytes interact with each other, antigen-presenting cells and antigens to produce the immune response; Diffuse lymphatic tissue, lymphatic nodules, tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen Secondary lymphatic organs and tissues
Lymphocytes must be able to recognize the antigen. After recognition, lymphocytes must increase in number to effectively destroy antigen Activation of Lymphocytes
specific regions of a given antigen recognized by a lymphocyte Antigenic determinants
attach to plasma membrane; Have variable region that can bind to foreign and self antigens major histocompatibility complex
Found on surface of nucleated cells. In concert with antigens that were produced inside the cell from, for example, digested virus particles. Like displaying a flag saying “Kill me!” MHC-restricted: both MHCI and foreign antigen are displayed together Class I MHC
Found on surface of antigen-presenting cells. B-cells, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells. Display of MHCII with foreign antigen is like “Rally round the flag”, stimulates other immune system cells to respond to the antigen. Class II MHC
Released by the macrophage of a cytokine that binds to a receptor on the helper T cell. Costimulation By cytokines
Binding of two molecules (B7 and CD28) on the macrophage and Helper T cell. Helps to hold the cells together. Costimulation By surface molecules
B or T cell does not respond to an antigen; occurs when T cell encounters a self antigen anergy
Cells from original clones must proliferate before antigen can be attacked effectively:Proliferation of Helper T cells;Proliferation of B cells and effector T cells Proliferation of Lymphocytes
Effective against extracellular antigens including bacteria, viruses, protozoans, fungi, parasites, and toxins when they are outside cells Antibody-Mediated Immunity
Part that combines with antigenic determinant of antigen Variable region of antibody
Responsible for activities of antibodies like activating complement or attaching to various kinds of WBCs Constant region of antibody
occurs when a B cell is first activated by an antigen. B cell proliferates to produce plasma cells (antibody production) and memory cells. Primary response
occurs during later exposure to same antigen. Memory cells divide rapidly to form plasma cells and additional memory cells. Faster and greater response. Secondary response
Function of T cells; most effective against intracellular microorganisms: viruses, fungi, intracellular bacteria, parasites Cell-Mediated Immunity
Lyse virus-infected cells, tumor cells, and tissue transplants. Major lysin is perforin, which forms a hole in the plasma membrane of the target cell. Produce cytokines, which promote phagocytosis and inflammation Cytotoxic T cells function
Involved in allergic reactions; e.g., poison ivy. Hapten that binds to proteins in the skin, then antigen processed by Langerhans cells (APCs) of the skin and presented to delayed hypersensitivity T cells Delayed hypersensitivity T cells
natural exposure to an antigen Active natural immunity
natural exposure to an antigen Active natural immunity
natural exposure to an antigen Active natural immunity
deliberate exposure to antigen or antibody Immunization
vaccination. Deliberate exposure to an antigen (vaccine) Active artificial immunity
transfer of antibodies from a mother to her fetus or baby Passive natural immunity
transfer of antibodies (or cells) from an immune animal to a nonimmune one; antiserum; ie. rabies, hepatitis, snake bites Passive artificial immunity
Created by: 619572525



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