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A & P MOD 4

Tissues, Membranes, and Wound Healing

Tissue A collection of cells that share a similar structure and are organized to perform a specific function.
Epithelial Tissue consisting of cells bound by connective material and varying in the number of layers and in the kinds of cells.
Epithelium The covering of the internal organs of the body, also the lining of the vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs.
Connective Tissues Dense tissue containing large numbers of cells and large amounts of intercellular material composed of fibers in a matrix or ground substance that may be liquid, gelatinous, or solid.
Nerve Tissue Tissue consisting of one or more bundles of impulse carrying fibers that connect the brain and the spinal cord with other parts of the body.
Muscle Tissue Tissue composed of fibers that are able to contract, causing and allowing movement of the parts and organs of the body.
Epithelial Tissue provides a protective barrier against extreme temperatures, environmental contaminates, and invasions by microorganisms while allowing secretion and excretion of wastes.
Connective Tissue Binds to other tissue structures to support and organize the body; binds to foreign cells to protect the body; binds to molecules to transport materials through the body.
Nerve Tissue Conducts electrical signals through the body.
Muscle Tissue Allows the movement of the movable structures of the body.
The epithelium covers the body and many of its parts. Also, lines the body's serous cavities; blood and lymph vessels, and the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts.
Serous Epithelial tissue that lines closed body cavities and covers the organs in that cavity.
The body's glands consist of epithelial tissue.
Cells that compose the epithelium are compactly arranged with little intercellular substances.
The epithelium always rests on a layer of connective tissue with a basement membrane between them.
There are no capillaries within the epithelium which means that oxygen and nutrients must be provided by the underlying connective tissue through diffusion.
Membrane A thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space.
Basement Membrane The fragile, noncellular layer of tissue that secures the overlying layers of stratified epithelium.
Diffusion The process of a substance moving from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Epithelial cells undergo constant mitosis in order to replace the outer layer cells that are lost through wear and exposure to forces and the environment.
Squamous Tissue Tissue consisting of flat cells that somewhat resemble scales.
Cuboidal Tissue Tissue consisting of cells that somewhat resemble square boxes, having dimensions approximately the same height, width, and depth.
Columnar Tissue Tissue consisting of cells that somewhat resemble rectangular boxes, having one dimension that is longer than the others.
Simple Tissue Tissue consisting of a single layer of cells.
Stratified Tissue Tissue consisting of more than one layer of cells.
Squamous Tissue Lines the blood vessels and the alveoli; the thinness of the tissue allows gases and chemicals to pass through the tissue.
Alveolus One of many small sacs within the lungs in which the exchange of gases take place, absorbing oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide.
Cuboidal Tissue Lines glands such as the thyroid and salivary glands; the shape of the tissue promotes secretion of chemicals by the glands.
Columnar Tissue Lines the stomach and intestines and secretes gastric juices and enzymes; some have cilia to sweep substances along, such as those that line the fallopian tubes and move an ovum toward the uterus.
Simple Tissue Forms the single layer linings of the capillaries, the thyroid gland, and the stomach; the thinness of the tissue allows gases and other substances to go in and out through the tissue.
Reticular Tissue Located in the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow; filters harmful substances from the blood and lymph.
Areolar Tissue Located in the loose accumulations between tissues and organs; connects tissues.
Adipose Tissue Located under the skin, provides padding, insulation, and a place to store fats.
Fibrous Tissue Located in tendons, ligaments, deep fascia, dermis, and the kidneys; provides strong, flexible connections and the formation of scars.
Tendon A fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bones.
Ligament A fibrous connective tissue that joins one bone to another.
Deep Fascia A band of connective tissue that covers or binds together body structures within body cavities.
Dermis The connective tissue that makes up the inner layer of skin.
Bone Tissue Located in the skeleton; forms bones to support the body and protect organs and tissues.
Cartilage Tissue Located in the nose, ears, trachea, and eustachian tubes and at bone joints; provides a firm but not rigid structure and padding between bones.
Trachea The windpipe.
Eustacian Tube A canal that allows air to pass between the middle ear cavity and the nasopharyngeal cavity.
Blood Tissue Located throughout the blood system; transports materials including oxygen, throughout the body and combats foreign organisms and cells.
Lymphatic Located in the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and thymus; forms certain types of white blood cells.
Myeloid Tissue Located in the bone marrow; forms red and white blood cells and platelets.
Platelet A blood cell that helps the clotting process used to seal a wound.
Elastic Tissue Located along the walls of the large arteries and alveoli in the lungs; helps in maintaining blood pressure in the blood system and in the exhalation of breath in the lungs.
Neurons The basic nerve tissue cells of the nervous system that are capable of generating electrochemical impulses that carry information to and from the brain.
Neuroglia the supporting or connecting tissue cells of the central nervous system.
Axon Carries nervous system impulses from the cell body.
Dendrite Carries nervous system impulses to the cell body.
Cell Body Performs metabolic and reproductive functions for the cell.
Neurons are surrounded by specialized cells that form the Sheath of Schwann, which electrically isolates neurons.
Nerve system impulses cannot cross the synapse unless it is filled with special chemicals called neurotransmitters.
There are three kinds of neurons as determined by their location and function; sensory, motor, and interneurons.
Sensory neurons, which are located in the central nervous system, carry signals from receptors in the skin, skeletal muscles, joints, and organs to the central nervous system.
Motor neurons which are sometimes referred to as efferent neurons, carry impulses from the central nervous system to effectors that cause responses in the muscles and glands.
Interneurons which are located in the central nervous system, carry either sensory or motor impulses or connect motor and sensory neurons and support higher order functions such as thinking and learning.
Oligodendrocytes Form the insulating sheath on neurons in the central nervous system.
Microglia Move so that they can locate and destroy damaged tissue and invading cells and organisms.
Astrocytes Prevent harmful chemicals from entering the brain from contaminated blood.
Ependyma Line the cavities in the brain and help to circulate cerbrospinal fluid.
Cerebrospinal fluid The tissue fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord.
Structural composition Whether the muscle tissue is striated or smooth (non striated).
Stiated Lined with grooves.
Level of conscious control Whether the muscle is voluntary or involuntary.
Voluntary Muscles that are consciously controlled by the wall of a person.
Involuntary Muscles that work automatically.
Location Whether the muscle tissue is skeletal, visceral, or cardiac.
Skeletal Striated, voluntary muscle tissue attached to bones.
Visceral Smooth, involuntary muscle tissue that lines the walls of hollow organs.
Cardiac Striated, involuntary muscle tissue that composes the walls of the heart.
Flexion A movement that decreases the angle of a joint.
Extension A movement that increases the angle of a joint.
Adduction A movement of a limb toward the midline of the body.
Abduction A movement of a limb away from the midline of the body.
Pronation A rotating movement of the hand so that the palm faces backwards or downward; an inward and downward rotating motion of the foot.
Supination A rotating movement of the forearm and hand so that the palm faces forward or upward; a corresponding movement of the foot and leg.
Dorsiflexion A movement of a part of the body toward the back.
Plantar Flexion A toe down movement of the foot at the ankle.
Rotation A rotating movement on an axis.
Neuromuscular excitablity The response of muscle tissue to stimulation by the nervous system.
Each muscular fiber is connected to the motor axon of a motor nerve.
The point where the neuron terminates on a muscle fiber is referred to as the neuromuscular junction.
Sacs in the end of a nerve contain a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine.
The sarcolemma membrane of those muscle fiber has receptors that are sensitive to ACh.
During a normally relaxed state the outer membrane of a muscle fiber is positively charged due to an abundance of positive sodium ions (Na+) and the core of the fiber is negatively charged due to an abundance of negative potassium ions (K
A nerve impulse arriving at the motor axon causes a release of ACh.
ACh binds to the receptors in the fiber membrane, causing it to become permeable to sodium and allowing the sodium ions to move toward the core of the fiber.
An arrangement of filaments with the muscle fiber, called a sarcomere, shorten to contract the fiber.
Permeable Capable of allowing substances to penetrate a structure.
Filament A threadlike, flexible structure.
Because virtually all of the fibers in the muscle are undergoing the same neuromuscular excitation, the entire muscle contracts.
As long as the impulses continue the muscle will remain contracted in a condition known as tetnus.
When the nerve impulses cease the muscle will remain cholinesterase, which inactivates the ACh.
The sodium ions flow back to the surface of the fiber so that it returns to its normal charged membrane and a negatively charged core.
Mucous membrane Lines cavities and passages that open to the exterior.
Serous membrane Lines the closed cavities of the body.
Synovial membrane Lines the skeletal joints, tendons, and bursae.
Bursae A sac of synovial fluid that helps to reduce friction between a bone and tendon.
Cutaneous membrane covers the body as skin.
Epidermis the outer layer of skin made up of an outer, dead portion and a deeper, living, cellular portion.
Dermis The inner layer of skin consisting of papilary and reticular layers and containing blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves and nerve endings, glands, and hair floicles.
Hypodermis The layer of areolar tissue and fat that lives beneath the dermis.
Mucous membrane forms a selective filter that allows some substances to enter the body while keeping other out; secretes mucous to keep its cells moist, to lubricate as a lubricant and pad between visceral and parietal layers.
Serous membrane Provides the visceral layer that covers organs enclosed in cavities; provides the parietal layer that lines cavities; provides the parietal layer that lines cavities;
secretes serous fluid to serve as a lubricant and pad between visceral and parietal layers.
Synovial membrane Secretes synovial fluid to provide lubrication and moisture.
Cutaneous membrane Secretes sweat and wastes to help maintain homeostasis.
Visceral Of or pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
Parietal Of or pertaining to the outer wall of a cavity or organ.
Organ A structure consisting of two or more tissues that performs a specific function for the body.
Heart Simple squamous epithelial tissue, fibrous connective tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, serous membrane.
Endocardium The lining of the heart chambers.
Pericardium A sac that surrounds the heart.
Myocardium The thick middle layer of the heart wall.
Stomach Fibrous connective tissue, smooth muscle tissue, mucous membrane, serous membrane.
Peritonium An extensive serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body.
Nerves nerve tissue.
Brain Nerve tissue.
Lungs Elasic connective tissue, epithelial tissue.
Organs are collections of tissues that are organized in such a way that they are able to perform specific functions.
The overall goal of these functions is to maintain a state of homeostasis in the body.
Each organ system monitors one or more conditions internal to the body or in the body's external environment.
The organs have feedback mechanisms that send signals to the central nervous system (CNS) about the conditions that they monitor.
The CNS provides response signals to organs in order to actuate regulation mechanisms designed to return the body to homeostasis.
Many of the response mechanisms involve physical or chemical reactions.
Organs are also involved in the transport of materials throughout the body.
Aplasia A developmental failure resulting in the absence of an organ or tissue.
Hypoplasia An incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ or tissue, which is usually the result of a decrease in the number of cells.
Atrophy A wasting or diminution of size or activity of a part of the body, usually the result of an abnormal decrease in cell size.
Hypertrophy An increase in the size of an organ caused by the increase in the size of cells rather than the number of cells.
Hyperplasia An increase in the number of cells of a body part.
Dysplasia Any abnormal development of tissues or organs.
Anaplasia A change in the structure or orientation of cells characterized by the production of abnormal, undifferentiated cells.
Surgical incision the separation of intact tissue by a surgeon using aseptic techniques.
Traumatic wound An injury to living body tissue caused by extrinsic agent.
Incision A smooth sided wound, especially one made during surgery.
Aseptic Free from pathogens.
Trauma An injury to living tissue caused by an extrinsic agent.
Extrinsic Outside of and not part of (the body).
Chemical reaction An injury to body tissue that is the result of a response of the body to exposure to a chemical.
Frostbite Local damage to tissue as a result of exposure to low temperatures.
Bacterial Infection The death of cells as a result of the action of microorganisms.
Burn Damage to tissue due to exposure to a high energy source.
Abrasion A wound caused by friction between the tissue and a mechanical force.
Contusion A wound caused by a force that does not break the skin but is sufficient to cause damage to subdermal tissues.
Subdermal Below the skin.
Avulsion A wound in which skin and underlying tissue are partially or completely torn away.
Incised wound A wound with smooth edges caused by a sharp surface.
Lacerated wound A wound with irregular edges.
Puncture wound A wound with little surface area that has been made by a sharp, slender object.
Perforated wound A wound caused by an object passing completely through the body or a portion of the body.
Crush wound A wound that is caused by pressure that is sufficient to alter or destroy tissue structure.
Rubor Immediately upon the occurrence of an insult to a site, the blood vessels in that area constrict and then dilate,
allowing blood to pool in an area as the vessels fill and blood is unable to flow quickly through the undilated vessels beyond the injured area. Heat
attracted by chemicals such as kinins released by the injured tissues. The purpose of the WBC's is to attack pathogens that may have entered the wound. They also fill the area with concentrated warmth. WBC's begin to accumulate in the injury site, attaching to the blood vessel walls and leading the body to release stored WBC's. The WBC's begin to pass through the walls of the blood vessels to fill the interstitial spaces,
Rubor The medical term used for redness.
Kinin A polypeptide hormone that forms in the tissues and has its chief effect on smooth muscle.
Swelling As WBC's, chemicals, fluids that leak from damaged blood vessels and cells, and other inflammatory exudate the interstitial areas, the injury site begins to bulge. Certain proteins in the interstitial solution transform into fibrin to form clots that sea
Fibrin A stringy, insoluble protein produced in the clotting process.
Pain the inflammatory exudate, especially the chemicals released by the injured cells, result in pain. The pain may help to protect the site by telling the organism to give it attention and to be careful with it.
Lag phase exudate containing blood, lymph, and fibrinogen begins clotting and loosely binds the cut edges together; Fibrin, clotting blood, and serum protein dry out, forming a scab to seal the wound; Leukocytes remove bacteria and damaged tissue debris.
Fibrinogen A protein produced by the liver that is converted into fibrin by thrombin to promote clotting at an injury site.
Leukocyte Another term for a white blood cell.
Fibroblasts multiply rapidly to bridge the wound gap, secreting fiber forming collagen.
Tensile Strength grows rapidly as the collagen network of fibers builds.
New cells form to replace cells that were damaged by the injury.
Fibroblasts a connective tissue cell that produces collagen and elastin fibers.
Collagen A protein that composes strong fibers in several types of connective tissue.
Tensile Strength A material's resistance to being torn apart by opposing forces.
Maturation phase scar tissue forms; the collagen reforms into cross links that further increase tensile strength; As the collagen density increases, the vascular makeup of the site decreases,
reducing blood flow in the area so that the color of the site becomes closer to normal.
Scar A mark left on the sin as a result of an injury.
Approximate to bring two tissue surfaces close together, as in the repair of a wound.
Granuation Tissue Any soft, pink, fleshy projections that form during the healing process in a wound not healing by first intention.
First intention treatment the wound is closed with a suture soon after the incision or trauma; there is no postoperative swelling.
Suture A stitch placed in tissue to hold the sides of a wound together during the healing process.
Postoperative following a surgical procedure; there is no discharge or infection; there is no minimal separation of the wound edges; there is minimal scar formation; healing is by primary union; Healing is relatively fast.
Primary union the situation in which severed tissue is essentially reunited with the tissue from which it was originally separated and that the healing process begins without disruptions from swelling, contamination, infection, and other factors.
Second intention treatment the wound is not closed with at suture; excessive loss of tissue or poorly approximated tissue;
serous discharge and infection; excessive separation of the wound edges; significant scar formation; healing may produce a weak union with granulation tissue forming in the bottom of the wound and slowly contracting the wound together as it builds up; healing takes longer than normal.
Third intention treatment the wound is closed with a suture, but it is not closed immediately after the incision or trauma; there may be loss of tissue due to infections or complications of the healing process; serious discharge and infection, often after an initial suturing;
excessive separation of the wound edges due to disruption of the healing process; usually a deeper and wider scar formation; healing may produce a weak union with some granulation forming in the infection site or area of poor healing; healing takes longer than normal.
Age the body's ability to heal declines as a person ages.
Nutritional status the production of cells and tissues as a part of the healing process requires an adequate supply of the proper nutrients.
Electrolyte balance the transport of the wound site of nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and other substances that promote healing depends on the pathways provided by blood and interstitial fluids.
Physical condition The good circulation and lock of fat associated with good physical conditioning reduce the chances of a wound becoming infected.
Surgical technique Good surgical technique complements the body's healing functions while poor surgical technique interferes with the healing process.
Infection the fighting of an infection reduces the amount of nutrients, oxygen, and other substances that can be involved in the healing process; further, the pathogens may produce toxins that interfere with the body's chemicals that are involved in healing.
Therapy treatment provided to the patient through therapy may include medications or procedures that either slow or improve the healing process.
Complication outside influences not directly related to the surgery can interfere with wound healing.
Exercise the improved circulation that comes with exercise helps to deliver oxygen , nutrients, and other resources for healing to the wound.
Hemorrhage the loss of a large amount of blood in a short time caused by failure of open blood vessels to adequately clot or to remain sealed.
Sinus tract formation the development of channels that permit the escape of purulent materials from pockets of pus and other fluids.
Purulent containing pus.
Hematoma a swelling or tumor that contains blood that is generally clotted.
Infection the presence of pathogens in a wound site.
Herniation a protrusion of an organ or tissue structure into a wound site.
Wound disruption one of the conditions; dehiscence, evisceration, or eventration; that interrupts the wound healing process.
Dehiscence the separation of the layers of a surgical wound.
Evisceration the extrusion of internal organs or viscera.
Eventration the partial protrusion of the abdominal contents through an opening in the abdominal wall.
Clean has an expected infection rat of 1 to 5 percent; involves an elective procedure done under ideal conditions; exhibits primary closure with no drainage; was not subjected to breaks in aseptic technique; shows no inflammation;
did not require entry into alimenatary, genitourinary, or respiratory tracts or oropharyngeal cavity.
Clean/contaminated (class II) has an expected infection rate of 8 to 10 percent; involves an internal procedure done under near ideal conditions; exhibits normal drainage during procedure; was subjected to minor breaks in aseptic technique;
shows no inflammation; required entry into alimentary, genitourinary, or respiratory tract or oropharyngeal cavity under controlled conditions.
Contaminated has an expected infection rate of 15 to 20 percent; involves and internal procedure done under less than ideal conditions; started as an open, fresh, traumatic wound less than four hours old;
was subjected to major breaks in aseptic technique; shows acute, nonpurulent inflammation; required entry that resulted in gross spillage or contamination from the gastrointestinal tract, entry into the biliary tract with infected bile present, entry into the genitourinary tract with urine present, or similar contamination.
Infected has an expected infection rate of 27 to 40 percent; involves an internal procedure done under less than ideal conditions; exhibits primary closure with no drainage; was subjected to microbial contamination in the operative field before the procedure;
shows acute bacterial inflammation that may be purulent or be a known clinical infection; involved exposure to perforated organ, such as a bowel.
Perforated organ an organ punctured in such a way that the contents of the organ could exclude onto other structures.
Created by: llc1980



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