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Where are the kidneys? (gutter, spinal disks, against which muscles) In the paravertebral gutters at T12 - L3 against the psoas major muscles.
From each kidney, a ureter runs inferiorly and passes over the pelvic brim at the bifurcation of the ______ artery. common iliac artery
The kidneys lie among which 3 abdominal muscles? 1)psoas major, 2)quadratus lumborum, and 3)transverse abdominis
The anterior surface of the right kidney is covered by which 4 structures? 1)liver, 2) 2nd (descending) portion of the duodenum, 3)right colic flexure, and 4)jejunum
The anterior surface of the left kidney is covered by which 5 structures? 1)stomach, 2)spleen, 3)pancreas, 4)left colic flexure, and 5)jejunum
The outermost layer of connective tissue, the renal fascia, fuses with the fascia of what 2 structures? Superiorly, it fuses with the diaphragmatic fascia. Posteriorly, it fuses withe the fascia of the psoas major muscle.
Where is renal fat mostly located? Renal fat is a perirenal fat layer between the renal fascia and capsule. There is little of it anteriorly.
This is a cavity by the hilus externally, containing the branches of the structures going into an out of the kidney. renal sinus
Describe the arterial supply of the adrenals. (3 arteries) Superior/middle/inferior suprarenal arteries. Lt/Rt superior suprarenals are branches of the phrenic. Lt/Rt phrenics supply diaphragm & come off aorta. Middle suprarenal is a branch off aorta. Inferior suprarenal branches from aorta or renal artery.
Describe the venous return of the adrenals. The right suprarenal vein goes to the IVC. The left suprarenal vein goes to the left renal vein.
The adrenal nerves are mostly _____ fibers from the ________ nerves and the ______ plexus, mostly synapsing on cells in the _______. Cortex receives only a _______ supply. The adrenal nerves are mostly sympathetic fibers from the thoracic splanchnic nerves and the celiac plexus, mostly synapsing on cells in the medulla. Cortex receives only a vasomotor supply.
The renal cortex contains ______ nephrons and portions of __________ nephrons. The renal cortex contains cortical nephrons and portions of juxtamedullary nephrons.
This is a cup-shaped drain which collects urine discharge from the papillae. Minor calyx
An accumulation of urine in the pelvis of the kidney, occasioned by obstruction in the urinary passages. hydronephrosis
This is most often done to assess structural abnormalities or obstruction to urine flow. IVP (intravenous pyelogram)
Kidneys receive _____% of your total cardiac output. 20-25%
The left & right renal arteries come off of the abdominal aorta at the ___ or ___ lumbar vertebrae. 1st or 2nd
At the medulla-cortex junction the interlobar arteries give rise to _______. arcuate arteries
The arcuate arteries send branches to the surface of the kidney called __________. interlobular arteries
Branching from the interlobular arteries are the _________, which enter the glomeruli. afferent arterioles
The _______ carry the blood from the glomerulus. efferent arterioles
The _____ are the capillaries that surround the loop of Henle. vasa recta
Trace the path of blood flow into the venous system from the peritubular and vasa recta capillaries. interlobular veins –> arcuate veins –> interlobar veins –> segmental veins -> Renal Vein
Nerves innervate which 3 structures of the kidney? 1)Juxtaglomerular apparatus, 2)smooth muscles in the walls of the afferent and efferent arterioles, and 3)mesangial cells of the glomeruli.
3 functions of renal nerve innervation. 1)Regulation of blood flow and pressure via control of the diameters of the afferent and efferent arterioles, 2)Stimulation of renin release from the juxtaglomerular apparatus, and 3)Direct stimulation of water and Na+ ion reabsorption.
These nephrons have short or long loops. midcortical nephrons
This type of nephron performs most of the reabsorptive and secretory functions of the kidney. It dilutes the urine. cortical nephron
______ nephrons lie close to and extend deep into the medulla, and produce concentrated urine. juxtamedullary nephrons
3 functions of mesangial cells between the capillaries in the nephron. 1)give structural support, 2)act as phagocytes to prevent clogging, and 3)produce vasoactive chemicals that control the diameter of the capillaries in turn affecting filtration rate.
The _______ is the entrance to the proximal convoluted tubule. tubular pole
• This layer of the capillary wall of the glomerulus has fenestrations. inner endothelium
The lamina densa is a middle basement membrane of the capillary wall of the glomerulus, that is a negatively charged, selective permeable network of _________ and _______. glycoproteins and mucopolysaccharides
• This layer of the capillary wall of the glomerulus is composed of podocytes which adhere to the lamina. outer visceral epithelium
Created by: jimyanke