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Anatomy (Heart)

Chapter 12

QuestionAnswer
Pulmonary Circuit carries blood to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs
Systemic Circuit transports blood to and from the rest of the body
Arteries efferent vessels,carry blood away from the heart
Veins afferent vessels, return blood to the heart
Capillaries small thin walled vessels between the smallest arteries and the smallest veins; the thin walls permit the exchange of nutrients,dissolved gases, and waste products between the blood and surrounding tissues
Right Atrium receives blood from the systemic circuit
Right Ventricle discharges blood into the pulmonary circuit
Left Atrium collects blood from the pulmonary circuit
Left Ventricle ejects the blood into the systemic circuit
Mediastinum connective tissue mass that divides the thoracic cavity into 2 plueral cavities;also contains the thymus,esophagus,and trachea
Pericardial Cavity this cavity surrounds the heart
Pericardium serous membrane lining the pericardial cavity
Base top half of the heart
Visceral Pericardium epicardium; covers the outer surface of the heart
Parietal Pericardium lines the inner surface of the pericardial sac which surrounds the heart
Pericardial Fluid acts as a lubricant,reducing friction between the opposing surfaces as the heart beats
Auricle lumpy wrinkled flap as part of the atria
Coronary Sulcus deep groove usally filled with substantial amounts of fat, marks the border between the atria and the ventricles
Anterior/Posterior Interventricular Sulcus marks the border between the left and right ventricles
Apex inferior,pointed tip of the heart
Epicardium covers the outer surface if the heart
Myocardium muscular wall of the heart, contains cardiac muscke tissue, blood vessels and nerves
Endocardium inner surface of the heart;simple squamous epithelium that is continuous with the endothelium of the attatched vessels
Intercalated Discs interlocking membranes of adjacent cells are held together bt desmosomes and linked by gap junctions
Superior Vena Cava delivers lood from the head, neck, upper limbs, and chest
Inferior Vena Cava carries blood from the rest of teh trunk, the viscera,and the lower limbs
Coronary Sinus opening into the right atrium slightly below the connection with the inferior vena cava
Fossa Ovalis allows blood to flow from the right atrium to the left atriumwhile the lungs were developing at birth; closes and after 48 hrs is permanently sealed
Right Atrioventricular Valve (AV) Tricuspid Valve
Chordae Tendineae connective tissue fibers bracing each cusp
Papillary Muscles cone shaped projections on the inner surface of the ventricle; contraction of these muscles tenses the chordae tendineae limiting the movement of the cusps and preventing the backflow of blood into the right atrium
Pulmonary Trunk blood leaving right ventricle flows here; start of pulomonary circuit
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve guards entrance to pulmonary trunk
Left/Right Pulmonary Arteries branch repeatedly into the lungs
Left/Right Pulmonary Veins oxygenated blood moes into here; delivered into left atrium
Left Atrioventricular Valve bicuspid valve; mitral valve
Aortic Semilunar Valve blood leaving left ventricle passes through here before moving into the aorta (start of systemic system)
Atrioventricular valves prevent backflow from venticles into atria
Regurgitation backflow of blood into the atrium; heart murmur
Aortic Sinuses prevent the cusps from sticking to the wall of the aorta when the valve opens
Fibrous Skeleton dense bands of elastic connective tissue that encircle the bases of the large blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart and each of the heart valves
Coronary Circulation supplies blood to the muscle tissue of the heart
Coronary Arteries originate at the base if the aorta
RCA provides blood to the right atrium and portions of both ventricles
LCA supplies blood to the left ventricle left atrium and interventricular septum
Anastomoses small tributaries from branches of the left and right coronary arteries
Great/Middle Cardiac veins carry blood away from the coronary capillaries
Coronary Sinuses large thin walled vein in the posterior portion of the coronary sulcus
Infarct area of dead tissue caused by an interruption in the blood flow
Myocardial Infarction heart attack,coronary circulation becomes blocked and cardiac muscle cells die from the lack of oxygen
Heartbeat entire heart,atria and ventricles contracts in a coordinated manner so that blood in flows in the correct direction at the proper time
Contractile Cells produce powerful contractions that propel blood;bulk of the hearts muscle tissue
Depolarization-Repolarization Process 250-300 msec,25-30 times as long as an action potential in a skeletal muscle fiber
Conducting System network of specialized cardiac muscle cells that initiates and distributes electrical impulses
Nodal Cells responsible for establishing the rate of cardiac contraction and are located at the sinoatrial (SA) and (AV) Nodes
Conducting Cells distribute the contractile stimulus to the general myocardium
Major Sites of conducting cells AV Bundle, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers
Pacemaker cells nodal cells that reach threshold first
Sinoatrial Node (SA node) cardiac pacemaker,tissue embedded int he posterior wall of the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava
Atrioventricular Node (AV Node) generate 40-60 action potential per minute
AV Bundle bundle of his
Left/Right Bundle Branches radiate across the inner surface of the left and right ventricles
Purkinje Fibers convey the impulses to the contactile cells of the venticular myocardium
Bradycardia slow heart beat (less than 60 bpm)
Tachycardia fast heart beat (more than 100 bpm)
EKG or ECC recording of heart beat
P wave atria begin contracting;accompanies the depolarization of the atria
QRS Complex strong signal
T wave ventricular repolarization
Cardiac Arrhythmias abnormal patterns of cardiac activity
Cardiac Cycle period between the start of one heart beat and the start of the next
systole contraction
Diastole relaxation-filling of blood
"Lubb" AV Valves closes and semilunar opens
"Dubb" semilunar valve close
Stroke Volume (SV) amount ejected by a ventricle during a single heart beat
Cardiac Output (CO) amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 min
CO = SV x HR (heart rate)
Atrial reflex produces adjustments in heart rate to an increase in the venous return
Venous return flow of venous blood to heart
Filling time duration of ventricular diastole when blood can flow into the ventricles
Frank-Starling Principle "more in = more out"
Cardioacceleratory Center activates the smpathetic motor neurons
Cadioinhibitory Center controls the parasympathetic motor neurons
Created by: twlightgirl92