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barrons aphg ch.2

absolute distance the distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as a mile or kilometer
absolute location the exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system
accessibility the relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place
azimuthal projection a map projection in shich the plane is the most developable surface
breaking point the outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply
cartograms atype of thematic map that transforms space such that the plitical unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the larges relative area.
choropleth map a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area.
cognitive map in image of a portion of the earth's surface that an individual creates in his or her mind. Cognitive maps can include knowledge of actual locations and relationships between locations as well as personal perceptions and preferences of particular places.
complementarity the actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions
connectivity the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
contagious diffusion the spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another peron or another place
coordinate system a standard grid, composed of lines of latitude and longitude, used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on the earth's surface
distance decay effect the decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases.
dot maps thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births.
expansion diffusion the spread of ideas, innovations, fashion or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange.
friction of distance a measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places.
fuller projection a type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directions-north, south, east, and west- no longer have any meaning.
geoid the actual shape of the earth, which is rough and oblate, or slightly squashed; the earth's circumference is longer around the equator then it is along the meridians, from north-south circumference.
gravity model a mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.
hazards anything in the landscape, real or perceived, that is potentialy threatening. hazards are usually avoided in spatial behavior.
hierarchical diffusion a type of diffusion in which something is transmitted between places because of something the two places have in common.
international date line the line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian.
intervening opportunities the supplier who is closer to the demanding place gets the intervening opportunity. (see pg. 98 barron's)
isoline map line that connects points of equal or very similar values.
large-scale a relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps.
latitude the angular distancenorth or south of the equator, defined by lines of lattitude, or parallels
law of retail gravitation law that states that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands that surround them.
location charts on a map, a cart or graph that gives specific statistical information of a particular pokitical unit or jurisdiction.
longitude the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by lines of longitude, or meridians.
map projection a mathematical method that transfers the earth's sphere onto a flat surface. it can be used to describe the type of map that results from the process of projecting. all map projections have distortions in either area, direction, distance, or shape
mercator projection a true conformal cylindrical map projection, the mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. mercator projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes poles appear oversized.
meridian a line of longitude that runs north-south. all lines of longitude are equal in length and intersect at the poles
parallel an east-west line of latitude that runs parallel to the equator and that marks distance north or south of the equator.
peters map projection a cylindrical map projection that attempts to retain the accurate sizes of all the world's landmasses
preference map a map that displays individual preferences for certain places
prime meridian an imaginary line passing through the royal observatory in greenwich, england, which marks the 0 degree line of longitude
proportional symbols map a thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol--such as a circle or triangle--indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region.
reference map a map type that shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigating.
relative distance a measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic connectivity between two places.
relative location the position of a place relative to places around it.
relocation diffusion the diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, and the like from one place to another through migration.
resolution a map's smallest discernable unit. if, for example, an object has to be one kilometer long in order to show up on a map, then that map's resolution is one kilometer.
robinson projection projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. it does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.
scale the ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface
site the absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics.
situation the relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system; a place's spatial context
small-scale map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small. small-scale maps usually depict large areas
spatial diffusion spatial diffusion refers to the ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or even outbreaks of disease, travel over space.
stimulus diffusion when a trait of one culture prompts invention or innovation in another.
thematic map a type of map that displays one or more variables--such as population, or income level--within a specific area
time-space convergence the idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places
topographic maps maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations. if you took a togographic map out into the field and walked exactly along the path of an isoline on you map, you would always stay at the same elevation.
topological space the amount of connectivity between places, regardless of the absolute distance separating them.
transferability the costs involved in moving goods from one place to another.
visualization use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three-dimensional or interactive.
Created by: kobs21



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