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Anatomy - Embryology

Anatomy from Embryology section of First Aid

QuestionAnswer
After arising from the floor of the primitive pharynx, where does the thryoid diverticulum go? It descends down into the neck
After the first breath at birth, what causes closure of the ductus arteriosus? An increase in oxygen
After the first breath at birth, what causes the closure of the foramen ovale? A decrease resistance in pulmonary vasculature causes increased left atrial pressure vs. right atrial pressure
Although the diaphragm descends during development, it maintains innervation from ____? C3-C5 ("C3, 4, 5 - keeps your diaphragm alive!")
What are the site of fetal erythropoisis (in order as development progresses)? Yolk, Liver, Spleen , Bone marrow ("Young Liver Synthesizes Blood")
At what time in the course of development is the fetus most susceptible to teratogens? Weeks 3-8
Deoxygenated blood from the SVC is expelled into the pulmonary artery and ____ ____ to the lower body of the fetus. ductus arteriosus
Do the cardiovascular structures arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Mesoderm
Do the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Do the enterochromaffin cells arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Do the lungs arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Endoderm
Do the lymphatics arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Mesoderm
Do the melanocytes arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Do the neural crest cells arise from mesoderm, ectoderm, or endoderm? Ectoderm
Do the odontoblasts arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Do the parafollicular (C) cells of the thyroid arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Do the Schwann cells arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Do the urogenital structures arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Mesoderm
Does blood arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Mesoderm
Does bone arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Mesoderm
Does muscle arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Mesoderm
Does the thyroid arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Endoderm
Does the adrenal cortex arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Mesoderm
Does the ANS arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Does the celiac ganglion arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Does the dorsal root ganglion arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Does the dura connective tissue arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Mesoderm
Does the gut tube epithelium arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Endoderm
Does the liver arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Endoderm
Does the pancreas arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Endoderm
Does the parathyroid arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Endoderm
Does the pia arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Does the serous linings of body cavities arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Mesoderm
Does the spleen arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Mesoderm
Does the thymus arise from neural crest (ectoderm), mesoderm, or endoderm? Endoderm
From what does the ligamentum teres hepatis arise? Umbilical vein
How does a bicornate uterus form? Results from incomplete fusion of the paramesonephric ducts
How does a cleft lip form? Failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal processes
How does a cleft palate form? Failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum, and/or the median palatine process
How does a horseshoe kidney form? Inferior poles of both kidneys fuse, as they ascend from the pelvis during development they get trapped under the inferior mesenteric artery, and remain low in the abdomen
How is meckel's diverticulum different than an omphalomesenteric cyst? Omphalomesenteric cyst is a cystic dilatation of the vitelline duct
How long does full development of spermatogenesis take? 2 months
How many arteries and veins does the umbilical cord contain? - 2 umbilical arteries (carries deoxygenated blood away from fetus) - 1 umbilical vein (oxygenated blood to fetus)
Is a primary spermatocyte 2N or 4N? 4N
Is a primary spermatocyte haploid or diploid? Diploid, 4N
Is a secondary spermatocyte haploid or diploid? Haploid, 2N
Is a secondary spermatocyte N or 2N? 2N
Is a speratogonium haploid or diploid? Diploid, 2N
Is a spermatid haploid or diploid? Haploid, N
Meiosis I is arrested in which phase until ovulation? Prophase
Meiosis II is arrested in which phase until fertilization? Metaphase (an egg MET a sperm)
Most oxygenated blood reaching the heart via IVC is diverted through the ____ ____ and pumped out the aorta to the head. foramen ovale
The right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein give rise to what adult heart structure? Superior vena cava
The stapedius muscle of the ear is formed by which branchial arch? 2nd
This type of bone formation consists of ossification of cartilaginous molds and forms long bones at primary and secondary centers. Endochondral
True or False, blood in the umbilical vein is 100% saturated with oxygen? False, it is 80% saturated
True or False, there are two types of spermatogonia? True, type A and type B
What are the 1st branchial arch derivatives innervated by? CN V2 and V3
What are the 2nd branchial arch derivatives innervated by? CN VII
What are the 3rd branchial arch derivatives innervated by? CN IX
What are the 4th and 6th branchial arch derivatives innervated by? CN X
What are the cartilage derivatives (5) of the 4th and 6th branchial arches? - Thyroid - Cricoid - Arytenoids - Corniculate - Cuneiform
What are the five 2's associated with meckel's diverticulum? - 2 inches long - 2 feet from the ileocecal valve - 2% of the population - Commonly presents in the first 2 years of life - May have 2 types of epithelia
What are the rule of 2's for the 2nd week of development? - 2 germ layers: epiblast & hypoblast - 2 cavities: amniotic cavity & yolk sac - 2 components to the placenta: cytotrophoblast & syncytiotrophoblast
What are the rule of 3's for the 3rd week of development? 3 germ layers (gastrula): ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
What can a persistent cervical sinus lead to? A branchial cyst in the neck
What can be found in the cortex of the thymus? It is dense with immature T cells
What can be found in the medulla of the thymus? It is pale with mature T cells, epithelial reticular cells, and Hassall's corpuscles
What connects the thyroid diverticulum to the tongue? The thyroglossal duct
What developmental contributions does the 5th branchial arch make? none
What do the 2nd - 4th branchial clefts form, which are obliterated by proliferation of the 2nd arch mesenchyme? Temporary cervical sinuses
What does aberrant development of the 3rd and 4th pouches cause? DiGeorge's syndrome
What does the 1st aortic arch give rise to? Part of the maxillary artery
What does the 2nd pharyngeal pouch develop into? Epithelial lining of the palantine tonsils
What does the 3rd aortic arch give rise to? Common carotid artery and proximal part of the internal carotid artery
What does the 4th pharyngeal pouch develop into? Superior parathyroids
What does the 5th aortic arch give rise to? Nothing
What does the 5th pharyngeal pouch develop into? C cells of the thyroid
What does the 6th aortic arch give rise to? The proximal part of the pulmonary arteries and (on left only) ductus arteriosus
What does the ductus arteriosus give rise to? Ligamentum arteriosum
What does the ductus venosus shunt blood away from? Liver
What does the first branchial cleft develop into? The external auditory meatus
What does the foramen ovale give rise to? Fossa ovalis
What does the left 4th aortic arch give rise to? Aortic arch
What does the ligamentum venosum come from? Ductus venosus
What does the notochord give rise to? Nucleus Pulposus
What does the primitive atria give rise to? Trabeculated left and right atrium
What does the primitive ventricle give rise to? Trabeculated parts of the left and right ventricle
What does the right 4th aortic arch give rise to? Proximal part of the right subclavian artery
What does the right horn of the sinus venosus give rise to? Smooth part of the right atrium
What does the spleen arise from? Dorsal mesentery, but is supplied by the artery of the foregut
What does the thymus arise from? Epithelium of the 3rd branchial pouch
What does the thyroid diverticulum arise from? The floor of the primitive pharynx
What does the truncus arteriosus give rise to? The ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
What does the umbilical arteries give rise to? Medial umbilical ligaments
What ear muscle does the 1st branchial arch form? Tensor tympani
What effect does 13-cis-retinoic acid have on the fetus? Extremely high risk for birth defects
What effect does ACE inhibitors have on the fetus? Renal Damage
What effect does iodide have on the fetus? Congenital goiter or hypothyroidism
What effect does warfarin and x-rays have on the fetus? Multiple anomalies
What effects does cocaine have on the fetus? Abnormal fetal development and fetal addiction
What embryonic structure are the smooth parts of the left and right ventricle derived from? Bulbus cordis
What embryonic structure does the coronary sinus come from? Left horn of the sinus venosus
What embryonic structure does the median umbilical ligament come from? Allantois (urachus)
What fetal landmark has developed within week 2 of fertilization? Bilaminar disk
What fetal landmark has occurred within week 1 of fertilization? Implantation
What fetal landmark has occurred within week 3 of fertilization? Gastrulation
What fetal landmarks (2) have developed within week 3 of fertilization? Primitive streak and neural plate begin to form
What five things arise from neuroectoderm? - Neurohypophysis - CNS neurons - Oligodendrocytes - Astrocytes - Pineal gland
What four structures make up the diaphragm? - Septum transversum - pleuroperitoneal folds - body wall - dorsal mesentery of esophagus
What four things arise from surface ectoderm? - Adenohypophysis - Lens of eye - Epithelial linings - Epidermis
What four things does Meckel's cartilage (from the 1st arch) develop into? - Mandible - Malleus - Incus - Sphenomandibular ligament
What four things does Reichert's cartilage (from the 2nd arch) develop into? - Stapes - Styloid process - Lesser horn of hyoid - Stylohyoid ligament
What four things does the dorsal pancreatic bud become? Body, tail, isthmus, and accessory pancreatic duct
What four things does the mesonephric (wolffian) duct develop into? - Seminal vesicles - Epididymis - Ejaculatory duct - Ductus deferens
What induces the ectoderm to form the neuroectoderm (neural plate)? Notochord
What is a hiatal hernia? Abdominal contents herniate into the thorax due to incomplete development of the diaphragm
What is a hypospadias? Abnormal opening of penile urethra on inferior side of penis due to failure of urethral folds to close
What is a single umbilical artery associated with? Congenital and chromosomal anomalies
What is a urachal cyst or sinus a remnant of? The allantois
What is an abnormal opening of penile urethra on superior side of penis due to faulty positioning of the genital tubercle? Epispadias
What is associated with an epispadias? Exstrophy of the bladder
What is Meckel's diverticulum? Persistence of the vitelline duct or yolk sac
What is oligohydramnios associated with? Bilateral renal agenesis or posterior urethral valves (in males)
What is oligohydramnios? < 0.5 L of amniotic fluid
What is polyhydramnios associated with? Esophageal/duodenal atresia, anencephaly
What is polyhydramnios? > 1.5-2 L of amniotic fluid
What is Potter's syndrome? Bilateral renal agenesis -> oligohydramnios --> limb and facial deformities and pulmonary hypoplasia. Caused by malformation of ureteric bud
What is the acrosome of sperm derived from? Golgi apparatus
What is the female homologue to the corpus spongiosum in the male? Vestibular bulbs
What is the female homologue to the prostate gland in the male? Urethral and paraurethral glands (of Skene)
What is the female homologue to the scrotum in the male? Labia majora
What is the female homologue to the ventral shaft of the penis in the male? Labia minora
What is the sperm's flagellum (tail) derived from? One of the centrioles
What is the food supply of sperm? Fructose
What is the male homologue to the glans clitoris in the female? Glans penis
What is the male homologue to the greater vestibular glands (of Bartholin) in the female? Bulbourethral glands (of Cowper)
What is the most common congenital anomaly of the GI tract? Meckel's diverticulum
What is the most common ectopic thyroid tissue site? The tongue
What is the normal remnant of the thyroglossal duct? Foramen cecum
What is the postnatal derivative of the notochord? The nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc
What is the site of T-cell maturation? Thymus
What part of the gut is the pancreas derived? Foregut
What suppresses the development of the paramesonephric ducts in males? Mullerian inhibiting substance (secreted by the testes)
What teratogenic agent causes limb defects ('flipper' limbs)? Thalidomide
What three structures does the 3rd pharyngeal pouch develop into? - Thymus - Left inferior parathyroid - Right inferior parathyroid
What three things does the 1st pharyngeal pouch develop into? - Middle ear cavity - Eustachian tube - Mastoid air cells
What three things does the paramesonephric (mullerian) duct develop into? - Fallopian tube - Uterus - Part of the vagina
What three things does the ventral pancreatic bud become? - Pancreatic head - uncinate process - main pancreatic duct
What two things occur during week 4 of fetal development? Heart begins to beat, upper and lower limb buds begin to form
What type of bone formation is spontaneous without preexisting cartilage? Intramembranous
What type of twins would have 1 placenta, 2 amniotic sacs, and 1 chorion? Monozygotic twins
What type of twins would have 2 amniotic sacs and 2 placentas? Monozygotic or dizygotic twins
What will DiGeorge's syndrome lead to? T cell deficiency & hypocalcemia
When do primary oocytes begin meiosis I? During fetal life
When do primary oocytes complete meiosis I? Just prior to ovulation
When does fetal erythropoiesis occur in the bone marrow? Week 28 and onward
When does fetal erythropoiesis occur in the liver? Weeks 6-30
When does fetal erythropoiesis occur in the spleen? Weeks 9-28
When does organogenesis occur in the fetus? Weeks 3-8
Where does positive and negative selection occur in the thymus? At the corticomedullary junction
Where does spermatogenesis take place? Seminferous tubules
Where is the first place fetal erythropoiesis occurs and when does this take place? Yolk sac (3-8 wk)
Which aortic arch does the stapedial artery and the hyoid artery come from? 2nd aortic arch
Which branchial arch are the greater horn of hyoid and the stylopharyngeus muscle derived from? 3rd branchial arch
Which branchial arch does Meckel's cartilage develop from? 1st arch
Which branchial arch forms the anterior 2/3 of the tongue? 1st arch
Which branchial arch forms the incus and malleus of the ear? 1st arch
Which ear bone(s) does the 2nd branchial arch form? Stapes
Which embryonic tissue are branchial clefts derived from? Ectoderm
Which embryonic tissue are branchial pouches derived from? Endoderm
Which is more common a hypospadias or epispadias? Hypospadias
Which muscles (3) are derivatives of the 4th branchial arch? - Most pharyngeal constrictors - Cricothyroid - Levator veli palatini
Which muscles (4) are derivatives of the 2nd branchial arch? - Muscles of facial expression - Stapedius - Stylohyoid - Posterior belly of digastric
Which muscles (8) are derivatives of the 1st branchial arch? - Temporalis - Masseter - Lateral pterygoid - Medial pterygoid - Mylohyoid - Anterior belly of digastric - Tensor tympani - Tensor veli palatini
Which muscles are derivatives of the 6th branchial arch? All intrinsic muscles of the larynx, except the cricothyroid
Which pharyngeal arch does Reichert's cartilage develop from? 2nd arch
Which teratogenic agent causes vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma? DES
Which two branchial arches form the posterior 1/3 of the tongue? 3rd and 4th arches
Which two embryonic tissues are branchial arches derived from? Mesoderm and neural crests
Which week of fetal development have the genitalia taken on male/female characteristics? Week 10
Created by: golfspy