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Anatomy - histology

Anatomy questions from histology section of First Aid

QuestionAnswer
Define anisocytosis. varying cell sizes
Define poikilocytosis varying cell shapes
From which cells do B cells arise? stem cells in bone marrow --> lymphoblast
From which cells do plasma cells differentiate? B cells
Of microglia or oligodendroglia, which can be discerned with Nissl stain? oligodendroglia appear as small dark nuclei with dark chromatin
Of microglia or oligodendroglia, which is undiscernable with Nissl stain? Microglia are not discernable in a Nissl stain
In what type of CNS tissue (white or grey) are oligodendroglia predominant? white matter
Into what cell type does a monocyte differentiate in tissues? Macrophages
Name 2 substances produced by an eosinophil. histiminase and arylsulfatase
Name the three types of leukocytic granulocytes. basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils
Name the two types of mononuclear leukocytes. lymphocytes and monocytes
What are 2 functions of T cell lymphocytes? - cellular immune response - regulation of B lymphocytes and macrophages
What are 2 morphological features of microglia? - small irregular nuclei - and relatively little cytoplasm
What are 3 examples of peripheral lymphoid tissue? - follicles of lymph nodes - white pulp of spleen - unencapsulated lymphoid tissue
What are 3 functions of a macrophage? - pagocytosis of bacteria, cell debris, and senescent red cells - scavenges damaged cells and tissues - can function as an antigen presenting cell
What are 3 morphological characteristics of monocytes? - Large - Kidney-shaped nucleus - Extensive 'frosted glass' cytoplasm
What are 4 characteristics of the plasma cell morphology? - Off center nucleus - Clock face chromatin distribution - Abundant RER - Well developed Golgi apparatus
What are 4 morphologic characteristics of lymphocytes? - Round - Small - Densely staining nucleus - Small amount of pale cytoplasm
What are 4 substances contained within the lysosomes of neutrophils? - hydrolytic enzymes - lysozyme - myeloperoxidase - lactoferrin
What are 4 types of cells into which T cells differentiate? - cytotoxic T cells (MHC I, CD8) - helper T cells (MHCII, CD4) - suppressor T cells - delayed hypersensitivity T cells
What are the 5 important causes for eosinophilia in humans? Neoplastic, Asthma, Allergic process, Collagen vascular disease, and Parasites (NAACP)
What are the blood cell diffenentiation names of the ACTIVE T CELL line beginning with the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell? (4) - Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell - Lymphoblast - T cell - Active T cell
What are the blood cell differentiation names of the ERYTHROCYTE cell line beginning with pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell? (4) - Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell - Proerythroblast - Reticulocyte - Erythrocyte
What are the blood cell differentiation names of the MONOCYTE cell lines beginning with the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell? (3) - Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell - Mono blast - Monocyte
What are the blood cell differentiation names of the NEUTROPHIL, EOSINOPHIL, and BASOPHIL cell lines beginning with the myeloblast stage? (6) - Myeloblast - Promyelocyte - Myelocyte - Metamyelocyte - Stab cell - Neutrophil, eosinophil or basophil
What are the blood cell differentiation names of the PLASMA CELL line beginning with the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell? (4) - Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell - Lymphoblast - B cell - Plasma cell
What are the blood cell differentiation names of the PLATELET CELL line beginning with the hematopoietic stem cell? (4) - Pluripotento hematopoietic stem cell - Megakaryoblast - Megakaryocyte - Platelets
What are the components of the air-blood barrier? - Type I pneumocyte - tight junction - endothelial cell
What are the steps of maturation of a B cell? (2 points) - maturation in the marrow - migration to peripheral lymphoid tissue
What are the substances contained within the densly basophilic granules of the basophil? (4) - Heparin (anticoagulant) - histamine (vasodilator) - vasoactive amines - Slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis
What are two basic morphological characteristics of neutrophils? - multilobed nucleus - large, spherical azurophilic primary granules (lysosomes)
What are two important functions of a neutrophil? - acute inflammmatory response of a cell - phagocytosis
What are two names for an increased number of red cells? Erythrocytosis and polycythemia
What cell type closely resembles a mast cell? basophil
What cranial nerves are commonly involved in an acoustic neuroma? CN VII, VIII (association with internal acoustic meatus)
What disease is characterized by destruction of oligodendroglia? Multiple sclerosis
What does CD e.g., CD4+, stand for? cluster of differentiation
What drug prevents mast cell degranulation? Cromolyn sodium
What immunoglobulin can bind to the membrane of a mast cell? IgE
What is a reticulocyte? a baby (developing) erythrocyte
What is an important example of a Schwannoma? Acoustic neuroma
What is another name for pulmonary sufractant? DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine)
What is percentage of leukocytes in the blood exist as basophils? less than 1%
What is the 'gap' between the myelination segment of 2 Schwann cells called? Node of Ranvier
What is the advantage of the large surface area:volume ratio in erythrocytes? easy gas exchange (Oxygen and Carbon dioxide)
What is the basic morphologic structure of an erythrocyte? Anucleate, biconcave
What is the basic morphology of an eosinophil? (2 things) - bilobate nucleus - packed with large eosinophilic granules of uniform size
What is the embryologic origin of microglia? mesoderm
What is the function of Interferon gamma with relation to macrophages? macrophage activation
What is the function of microglia? phagocytosis in CNS
What is the function of oligodendroglia? myelination of multiple CNS axons
What is the function of pulmonary surfactant? lowers alveolar surface tension and prevents atelectasis
What is the function of Schwann cells? myelination of PNS (a Schwann cell myelinates only one PNS axon)
What is the importance of the lecithin:sphingomyelin ratio? 2.0 in fetal lung is indicative of fetal lung maturity
What is the importance of the physiologic chloride shift in erythrocytes? Membranes contain the chloride bicarbonate antiport allowing the RBC to transport carbon dioxide from the the lung periphery for elimination.
What is the last segment of lung tissue in which ciliated cells are found? respiratory bronchioles
What is the last segment of lung tissue in which goblet cells are found? terminal broncioles (remember ciliated cells sweep away mucous produced by goblet cells and therefore run deeper)
What is the primary function of a basophil? Mediates allergic reactions
What is the primary function of a leukocyte? Defense against infections
What is the primary function of a mast cell? Mediates allergic reactions
What is the primary function of a plasma cell? production of large amounts of a specific antibody to a particular antigen
What is the primary source of energy for erythrocytes? glucose (90% anaerobically degraded to lactate, 10% by HMP shunt)
What is the process of degranulation in mast cells? release of histamine, heparin, and eosinophil chemotactic factors
What is the range of concentration for leukocytes in the blood? 4,000 - 10,000 cells per microliter
What is the response of an eosiniphil to antigen antibody complexes? high degree of phagocytosis
What is the response of microglia to tissue dammage? transformation into large ameboid phagocytic cells
What is the response to microglia infected with HIV? fusion to form multinucleated giant cells in CNS
What is the survival time for an erythrocyte? 120 days
What pathognomonic change is seen in neutrophils of a person who is folate/vitamin B12 deficient? hypersegmented polys
What percentage of leukocytes exist as eosinophils in the blood? 1 - 6%
What percentage of leukocytes exist as neutrophils in the blood? 40 - 75%
What percentage of leukocytes in blood are monocytes? 2 - 10%
What process occurs when type I pneumocytes are damaged? Type II pneumocytes develop into type I
What substance in eosinophilic granules is primarily responsible for defense against helminths and protozoan infections? major basic protein
Where is the site of maturation of T lymphocytes? Thymus
Which cell type constituitively secretes pulmonary surfactant? Type II pneumocyte
Which cell type lines the alveoli? Type I pneumocyte
Which leukemia is the result of plasma cell neoplasm? Multiple myeloma
Which type of hypersensitivity reaction is a mast cell involved in? Type I hypersensitivity reaction
Which type of immunity do B cells exhibit? humoral immunity
Created by: golfspy