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Anatomy- Blood

red blood cells transport(O2) from lungs to tissues &(CO2)from tissue to lungs; 1/3 hemoglobin, 2/3 lipids, ATP, carbonic anhydrase
white blood cells cells that protect the body from foreign microbes and toxins
Granulocytes contain numerous granules in the cytoplasm and have a nucleus that is irregularly shaped with lobes (WBC) Neutro, Eosino, Baso
Neutrophils the first WBCs to arrive at a site of infection, responding (by chemotaxis) to chemicals released by damaged cells.engulf bacteria, which are then destroyed by the various antibiotic proteins contained within the granules (granulocyte); 60-70% of WBC
Eosinophils enter tissue during inflammatory response; allergic reactions; destroyhistamines
Basophils inflammation and allergic response (granulocyte) least common
Agranulocytes (WBC) do not have visible granules in the cytoplasm and the nucleus is not lobed (lympho & mono)
Lymphocytes antibody production
Platelets Cell fragments that form platelet plugs and release chems for blood clotting
Plasma liquid portion of the blood; contains water, proteins, waste products, nutrients
hematoiesis the process that produces the formed elements of the blood; takes place in the red bone marrow
proethryoblasts stem cells develop into RBC
myeloblasts stem cells that develop into granulocytes
albumin protein in plasma; viscocity, osmotic pressue
globulins protein in plasma; transport lipids, carbs, etc
fibriongen protein in plasma; blood clotting
lymphoblats stem cells develop into lymphocytes
monoblasts stem cells develop into monocytes
megakaryoblasts stem cells develop into platelets
iron required for oxygen transport
erythropotein hormone stimulates RBC production; produced by kidneys in response to low blood O2 levels
chemotaxis atraction and movement of WBC towards foreign materials or damaged cells; dead WBC + bacteria= pus
diapedesis WBC cells become thin, elongate and move between or thru endothial cells of capillaries
monocytes break down antigens and present them to lymphocytes for recognition
hemostasis arrest of bleeding: vascular spasm, platelets plug, blood clotting
platelet plug formation 1. Von Willebrand factor causes adhesion of collagen and platelets2. ADP, thromboxones, etc cause cascade effectfribrogen forms bridge: platelet plug
coagulation prothrombinase activate-> converted to thrombin-> fibronigen convert to fibrin. clot= fibrin+trapped blood cells, platelets and fluids
extrinsic clotting pathway begins with chems outside blood; damaged tissues release tissue factor; when CA2 is present activates factor X, prothrombinase formed->thrombin->fibrogin to fibrin; thrombin activates factor XII to stabalize clot
intrinsic clotting pathway begins with chems part of blood;
fibronylisis clot retraction
blood grouping determined by antigens on surface of RBCs
hemolytic disease of newborn rh+ fetus, rh- mom; in second pregnancy antibodies caused by 1st pregnancy may attack fetal RBCs
Created by: 619572525



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