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block6 neuro soltez

Block 6 Soltez diencephalon

QuestionAnswer
Diencephalon is part of what portion of the brain? forebrain
What are the components of the diencephalon? dorsal thalamus, ventral thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
What sensory pathway does NOT travel through the diencephalon? olfaction
What separates the two halves of the diencephalon? third ventricle
the diencephalon gives rise to what structures? Thalamic nuclei posterior pituitary optic cup
Diencephalon is part of what portion of the brain? forebrain
What are the components of the diencephalon? dorsal thalamus, ventral thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
What sensory pathway does NOT travel through the diencephalon? olfaction
What separates the two halves of the diencephalon? third ventricle
the diencephalon gives rise to what structures? Thalamic nuclei posterior pituitary optic cup
What part of diecephalon participates in a wide variety of functions that involve motor, sensory, and limbic systems? Dosal thalamus
Where and what is the stratum zonale? thin laminae of white matter on dorsal surface
Where and what is external medullary lamina thin laminae of white matter on the lateral surface
What separates the external medullary lamina from the internal capsule of the thalamus? layer of gray matter called the reticular nucleus
What are the three basic nuclear groups of the thalamus created by the internal medullary lamina? the myelinated axons of the internal medullary lamina create anterior, medial and intralaminar nuclear groups
What is the purpose of the structure found in 80% of the population that spans the third ventricle? interthalamic adhesion or massa intermedia joins the sides of thalamus
What is the neurotransmitter found in the reticular nucleus? GABA - y-aminobutyric acid
Thalamic neurons exhibit what sort of complex activity? reciprocal...may limit or inhibit themselves by signaling other inhibitory neurons
Where is the centromedian nucleus? Where does it send fibers? intralaminar nucleus that projects to the striatum and motor areas of cortex
Where is the parafasicular nucleus? Where does it send fibers? intralaminar nucleus that projects to the rostral and lateral areas of frontal lobe
What are two things affected by the centromedian nucleus and parafasicular nucleus? Pain and Sleep
The Pulvinar receives input from where and sends fibers where? receives input from superior colliculus and projects to visual association cortex
What very large nucleus is involved in interpretation of sensory stimuli for the formulation of complex behavioral responses? pulvinar
Why are the Ventral Anterior (VA) and Ventral Lateral (VL) nuclei important? important motor related nuclei
Dr. Soltesz loves what nuclei that convey somatosensory information to the cerebral cortex? Ventral posterior Lateral (VPL) Ventral posterior Medial (VPM)
What nucleus receives visual input from the retina via the optic tract and projects to the primary visual cortex? Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
What nucleus receives auditory input from the branchium of the inferior colliculus and projects to the primary auditory cortex? Medial geniculate nucleus (MGN)
Where does Fatal Familial Insomnia do it's damage? Prion disease that destroys mediodorsal nucleus and anterior ventral nucleus
Hypothalamus big number one job? Other things it do... Principal modulator of the ANS...and then visceromotor, viscerosensory and endocrine functions of the autonomic nervous system
Viscerosensory receptors of the hypothalamus respond to what? BP, Blood osmolality, blood nutrient levels, hormone levels
Hypothalamus produces what hormones? Where and how does it send these hormones? oxytocin and ADH (antidiuretic hormone) are made and shipped to the posterior pituitary via the Hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract
Where are the cells that are involved in cardiovascular function and regulation of food and water intake? Lateral Hypothalamic Zone - a diffuse cluster of neurons
What three discreet nuclei are found in three regions of the medial hypothalamic zone? Chiasmatic nuclei in chiasmatic region Tuberal nuclei in tuberal region Mammillary nuclei in mammillary region
What does chiasmatic nuclei do? regulate hormone release, cardiovascular function, circadian rhythm, body temp
What does the tuberal nuclei do? regulate food and water intake
What does the mammillary nuclei do? elevate blood pressure, pupillary dilation, shivering, plus some feeding and memory work
What is another name for the Ventral Thalamus? Where is it located? Subthalamus is found ventral to the dorsal thalamus.
What makes up the Subthalamus? subthalamic nucleus prerubral arear (field H of forel) zone incerta
How does the subthalamic nucleus modulate motor activites? It receives input from motor areas of cerebral cortex, projects axons to the substantia nigra and recipricates with globus pallidus
Why would you develop a lesion in the subthalamic nucleus? What would this be called? Hemiballismus results from occlusion in posteromedial branches of posterior cerebral artery or posterior communicating artery.
What are the symptoms of a patient with ballism or hemiballismus? wild flailing movements at proximal limbs (especially arms) of which they have no control
What are the two principal components of the epithalamus? pineal gland habenular nuclei
What afferent fibers carry signals from the septal area on medial surface of frontal lobe beneath the rostral end of corpus callosum to the habenular nuclei? stria medullaris thalami
What enzyme, found where synthesizes melatonin from serotonin? N-acetyltransferase catalyzes the reaction in the pineal gland
When are levels of N-acetyltransferase highest in the pineal gland? So what stops it? Name for the process? nighttime hours it is highest, light turns it off - called the circadian rhythm
What can cause precocious puberty? destruction of pinealocytes by a tumor
What can delay puberty? a tumor derived from pinealocytes
What is another name for the Fasciculus retroflexus of Meynert? habenulointerpeduncular tract
Where would the axons of the habenulointerpeduncular tract begin and end? start at habenular nuclei, end in interpeduncular tract
Newer research suggest what possible roles for the habenular nuclei? mood, drive and cognition functions - if the habenular nuclei are disturbed abnormalities in the three occur
If a patient has an addiction, new research suggest their habenular nuclei may interact with what? prominent serotonergic and dopaminergic systems
A patient presents with a somatosensory distubance caused by a vascular lesion. What are is most likely to have the lesion? What is the name? Where is the affected area? Thalamic Pain syndrome arises from lesions on the ventral posterior part of the thalamus. It causes proprioceptoin, touch, pain and temp sensations contralaterally on the body
How does thalamic pain syndrome manifest itself in the patient? Spontaneous pain that does not respond to analgesics, spontaneous laughing or crying, heightened irritation to normally pleasing stimuli - ex. Rachmaninov sounds like Rap music
Created by: El Diablo