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Muscle tissue

BIO 168

Skeletal muscle function - Produces skeletal movement - Maintain posture - Support of soft tissues - Guard entrances and exits sphincters - Temperature maintenance in homeostasis - Nutrient storage
Endomysium Surrounds muscle cells
Perimysium Surrounds fascicles
Epimysium Surrounds muscle
Tendons and aponeuroses At the end of the muscle, collagen fibers of the epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium come together to form a bundle
Tendons and aponeuroses function To attach skeletal muscle to bone and they extend into the bone matrix
The connective tissue of the endomysium and perimysium contain... the blood vessels and nerves that supply the muscle fiber (delivers only necessary oxygen and nutrients)
Neuromuscular junction - Axon terminals - Come into close proximity to the sarcolemma - Have vesicles that contain acetylcholine (Ach) - Synaptic cleft - a small gap that separates the axon from the sarcolemma
Contraction of skeletal muscle 1. Nerve signal arrives at the axon terminal 2. The synaptic vesicles release Ach 3. Ach binds to receptors on the sarcolemma 4. The SR releases Ca 5. Calcium from the SR causes the filaments to slide past one another
Muscle cell fiber structure - 1 mm diameter and up 12 inches - Myoblast -Sarcolemma -Sarcoplasm - Transverse tubules
Myoblast Fuse to form mature muscle fiber cells and satellite cells
Sarcolemma Membrane
Sarcoplasm Cytoplasm
Transverse tubules Connect with sarcoplasmic reticulum
Myofibrils and sarcomeres - Myofibrils run the length of the muscle fiber composed of numerous sarcomeres - Extends between Z lines - Contains two types of protein filaments (thick and thin filaments)
I band Contains only thin filaments
A band In the center of the sarcomere contains thick and thin filaments
H zone In the center of the A band has only myosin filaments
Thick filaments - Made of myosin - Myosin is anchored by titin filaments
Thin filaments - Made of actin, tropomyosin, and troponin - Two strands of actin - Double strands of tropomyosin coil of each actin strand - Troponin occurs at intervals on the tropomyosin strand
Sliding filaments - Occurs when sarcomeres shorten (during muscle contraction) - Actin filaments slide past the myosin filaments - Thick and thin filaments remain the same length
Role of actin and myosin - Myosin binding sites on actin molecules - Covered by tropomyosin when muscle is relaxed - Released calcium combines with troponin and myosin binding sites are exposed - Cross-bridges of myosin have two binding sites (ATP and actin)
Energy for muscle contraction - ATP present before strenuous exercise only lasts a few seconds
Muscle acquire new ATP in three ways 1. Creatine phosphate breakdown 2. Cellular respiration 3. Fermentation
Sarcoplasmic reticulum Terminal cisternae and will store calcium ions (sarcomeres contractile units of myofibrils bounded by Z lines)
Motor units Motor neuron with all muscle cells innervated by it
Neurotransmitter Stored in synaptic vesicles, released by exocytosis
Neuromuscular junction - Axon terminals - Come into close proximity to the sarcolemma - Have vesicles that contain acetylcholine (Ach) - Synaptic cleft - a small gap that separates the axon from the sarcolemma
Created by: anahdzv
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