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Stack #36161

A&P2- ClassNotes P36 ImmuneSys-#4/Test 3

QuestionAnswer
Nitric oxide is one of the free radicals released to destroy: Invaders during respiratory burst
Defensins are antibiotic (bleach like) chemicals: Released by neutrophils during attack
Phagocytes may be unsuccessful if A: Bacterial capsule or other such structure is present to prevent attachment by phagocyte
no attachment means no possibility of phagocytosis
OPSONIZATION occurs when the complement proteins/antibodies coat the: Pathogens surface-thereby providing phagocyte-binding sites
After OPSONIZATION occurs the antibodies are called: OPSONINS
Types of phagocytes: macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils
The chief phagocyte is: Macrophage, formerly a monocyte
Macrophage is AKA: 3 RETICULO-ENDOTHIAL, HISTIOCYTE OR Monocyte/macrophage system
Macrophage is derived from: monocytes that leave BV's & enter tissues
After monocytes leave BV's and become Macrophages they: Enlarge & increase lysosome component
What phagocyte is a good survivor? macrophage
Macrophages do not release toxic chemicals but: rely on intracellular destruction of pathogens
Macrophages secrete chemical mediators called: MONOKINES
INTERLEUKIN-1 is a specific: MONOKINE
MONOKINES come from a class of: soluble glycoproteins called CYTOKINES
INTERLEUKIN-1 co-stimulates: bound T-cells to release INTERLEUKIN-2
The job of INTERLEUKIN-2 is to create a: pos. feedback cycle to proliferate active T-cells
FREE (MOTIVE) MACROPHAGES: wonder tissue spaces; ie:dust cells that patrol lungs
FIXED MACROPHAGES: stay in 1 place; ie:Kupffer cells of liver or microglia of CNS
Macrophages of lungs & lymph nodes develop from: monocytes formed in bone marrow
Macrophages engulf foreign particles &: Display them on thier cell membrane surface
Macrophages display info about foreign particles so that: T-cells can learn the identity of invader AND B-cells can approach them and copy the shape of the invader
B-cells use shape of invader infomation to: start a recipe for antibody production
Neutrophil (MICROcrophages) become: phagocytes when they encounter pathogens
Neutrophils usually destroy themself in the process of defense due to: types of chemicals they produce & release (bleach-like stuff, oxidizers, etc...)
Eosinophils are critical in defense against: parasitic worms;
Eosinophils attack worms by: pressing against them & firing the contents of lysosomes at them
The weakest phagocyte is the : eosinophils (microphage) Note: MI not MA
Phagocytosis is a form of: active transport
Phagocytosis requires the use of: enzymes, AND other forms of cellular energy (ATP)
Engulfment of pathogens on a grand scale is called: phagocytosis