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CCNN Nervous Sys

The Human Body in Health and Illness Chap 10

QuestionAnswer
There are two parts of the nervous system what are called? Central Nervous System CNS Peripheral Nervous System
Central Nervous System Includes the brain and the spinal cord. Located in the dorsal cavity.
Peripheral Nervous System Consists of the nerves that connect the CNS with the rest of the body.
Sensory Function Sensory nerves gather information from inside the body and from the outside environment.
Integrative Function Information brought to the CNS is processed or interpreted.
Motor Function Motor nerves carry out the plans made by the CNS.
Neurotransmitters The axon terminal of a neuron contains thousands of tiny vesicles that store chemical substances.
Inactivators Substances that terminate the activity of of the neurotransmitters.
Receptors Receptor sites are places on the membrane to which neurotransmitters attach or bind.
Dendrites Treelike structures that receive information from other neurons and then transmit the information toward the cell body.
Axon Terminals The of the axon has extensive branching to form hundreds to thousand axon terminals. Within the axon terminals that the chemical neurotransmitters are stored.
Acetylcholine The most common neurotransmitter.
Brain Stem The brain stem consists of the midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata.
Midbrain Relays sensory and motor information. Also contains nuclei that functions as reflex centers for vision and hearing.
Pons Primarily tracts that act as a bridge for information traveling to and from several brain structures. Plays important role in the regulation of breathing rate and rhythm.
Medulla Oblongata Often called the vital center. Relay for sensory and motor information. Control heart rate, respiration and blood pressure. Contains the vomiting center.
Four Major Areas of Brain Cerebrum, Diencephalon, Brain Stem and Cerebellum.
Cerebrum The largest part of the brain. Divided into right and left hemispheres.
Four Lobes of the Cerebrum The Frontal, the Parietal Lobe, the Temporal Lobe and the Occipital Lobe.
Frontal Lobe Located in the front of the cranium underthe frontal bone. Motor area, personality; behavior; emotional expression; intellectual functions ("EXECUTIVE: FUNCTIONS); memory storage.
Parietal Lobe Located behind the central sulcus. information from the body. Somatosensory area (especially from skin and muscel; taste; speech; reading)
Temporal Lobe Inferior to the lateral fissure in an area above the ear. Hearing (auditory area); smell; (olfactory area); taste; memory storage; part of speech area.
Occipital Lobe Back of the head, occipital bone. Vision; vision-relaed reflexes and functions(reading, judging distances, seeing in three dimensions)
Endorphins Feel Good neurotransmitters.
Acetylcholinestrose An enzyme that inactivates the neuro transmitter acetylcholine ACh when its
Precentral Gyrus Is located in the frontal lobe directly in front of the central sulcus.
Central Sulcus Separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
Synaptic Cleft A space that exists because the axon termainal of a nerve does not physically touch the dendrtite of a neuron of neuron.
Synapse A synapse helps information move from one neuron to the next.
Gyri Cerebrum is folded into elevations, speed bumps. Elevations are called convolutions or gyri. The bumpy service of the cerebrum has many markings or structures with names.
Sulcus Gyri are separated by rooves called sulci, a deep sulci is called a fissure. Sulci and fissures separate the cerebrum into lobes.
Hypothalmas Situated directly below the thalamus and helps reulate many body processes, including body temperature, water balance and metabolism. Also helps regulate involuntary nerve actions and exerts an effect on heart rate, blood pressure and respiration.
Diencephalon Contains the thalmus and Hupothalmus.Located beneath the cerebrum and above the brain stem.
Thalmus Serves as a relay station form most of the sensory fibers traveling from the lower brain and spinal cord region to the sensory areas.
Pituitary Gland Located under the hypothalamus, it directly or indirectly affects almost every hormone in the body, it is directly controlled by the hypothalmus.
Cerebellum It is the structure that protrudes from under the occipital lobe at the base of the skull. Smoothes out and coordinates voluntary muscle activity; helps in the maintenance of balance and muscle tone.
Reticular Formation Mediates wakefuness and sleep.
Cerebrospinal Fluid Third layer of protection of the CNS. Is formed from blood within the brain. It is clear, similar in composition to plasma. Circulates with the suarachnoid space, forming a cushion.
Astrocytes Star shaped, they are the most abundant of the Neuroglia or glial cells. They support the nuerons and also form a protective barrier around the neurons of the CNS.
Myelin Sheath A layer of white fatty material. Most long nerve fibers of the CNS and PNS are encased by a myelin sheath.
White Matter White because of the myelin.
Gray Matter composed primarily of cell bodies, interneurons and unmyelinated fibers.
Polarization Resting state of the neuron, no nerve impulse, the middle of the neuron is more negative than the outside. -
Depolarization When the neuron is stimulated, inside changed from negative to positive, allows sodium ions Na+ to cross the membrane into the cell.
Repolarization Inside is negative,returns to resting state.It stops the diffusion of Na+ and allow K+ potasium to diffuse out of the cell.
Primary Motor Cortex Nerve impulses that originate in the motor area control voluntary muscle movement. In the frontal lobe.
Broca's Area Area concerned with motor speech.
Parkinson Disease Defiecency of dopamine.
Bell's Palsy CN VII, facial nerves, facial expression is absent on the affected side of the face. Called Bell's Palsy.
Interneurons Found in the CNS only. Form connections between sensory and motor neurons. Thinking, learning and memory.
Motor Neurons Carries infromation form the CNS toward the periphery. Also called efferent.
Nerve Impulse/Action Potential Conveys information, a nerve impulse must move the length of the neuron. Fire in an all or nothing manner.
Puncture Site L3-L4
Spinal Cord Approximately 17 inches.
Reflexes is an involuntary response to a stimuli.
Cranial Nerves Part 1 Functions are sensory information the the special senses; smell, taste vision. Sensory information the the general senses; touch, pressure, pain, temperature and vibration
Cranial Nerves Part 2 Motor information; contraction of skeletal muscles. Motor information that results in the secretion of glands and the contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle.
Subarachnoid Space Lies between the arachnoid layer and the pia mater, where the cerebrospinal fluid circulates.
Meninges Connective tissue thas surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Second layer of protection. Bone, Meninges (PAD)Cerebrospinal fluid, Blood Brain Barrier. Four Layes of protection.
Cervical C1 through C4 Skin and muscles of the neck and shoulder, diaphragm. Spinal Nerves
Brachial C5 to C8, T1 Skin and muscles of the upper extremities.
Lumbosacral T1, l1 TO l5 S1 to S4 Skin and muscle of lower torso and lower extremites.
Spinal Nerves Cervical (8), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacral (5) and Cocchgeal (1).
I Olfactory Sensory Sense of smell.
II Optic Sensory Sense of sight.
III Oculomotor Mixed (Mostly motor) Movement of eyeball, raising of eyelid, changes in pupil size.
IV Trochlear Mixed (mostly motor) Movement of eyeball.
V Trigeminal Mixed Chewing of food, sensations in face, scalp, cornea (eye) and teeth.
VI Abducens Mixed (mostly motor) Movement of eyeball.
VII Facial Mixed Facial expressions, secretion of saliva and tears,taste, blinking.
VIII Vestibulocochlear Sensory Sense of hearing and balance.
IX Glossopharyngeal Mixed Swallowing, secretion of saliva, taste, sensory for the reflex, regulation of blood pressure, part of the gag relex.
X Vagus Mixed Visceral muscle movement and sensations, especially movement and secretion of the disgestive system, sensory for relex regulation of blood pressure.
XI Accessory Mised (mostly motor) Swallowing, head and shoulder movement, speaking.
XII Hypoglossal Mixed (mostly motor) Speech and swallowing.
Created by: DebraF