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A+P Test 1 Ch3b


Within cell plasma membrane: cytoplasm
cytoplasm everything between the plasma membrane and the nucleus (cytosol and organelles)
cytosol intracellular fluid, 90% water and where lots of chemical reactions take place
organelles specialized structures within the cell with specific shapes and functions.
cytoskeleton and 3 types (smallest to largest diameter) network of protein filaments that extends throughout the cytosol. Microfilament, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
Microfilament Thin fibers of actin at edge of cell that support movement and give mechanical support (strength and shape of cells, support microvilli)
Microvilli Have a core of parallel microfilaments. Greatly increase surface area, so abundant on cells involved in absorption, such as epthelial cells that line the small intestine.
Intermediate filament Very strong (made of proteins). Found where subject to mechanical stress. Stabilize the position of organelles and nucleus. Help attach cells to one another.
Microtubule Largest, made of long hollow unbranched tubes of protein (mainly tubulin). Help with shape of cell, movement of organelles (chromosomes during cell division), and movement of cilia and flagella.
cilia numerous, short, hairlike, on cell surface, anchored by a basal body. oar-like movement. Moves fluids along a cell's surface. (lung and fallopian tube cells).
flagella usually 1/cell. Whip-like (wave-like)motion that moves the entire cell. (Sperm tail).
ribosome Make proteins. Little balls (containing lots of rRNA) mostly attached to rough ER. Made in nucleolus.
Endoplasmic reticulum Extends from the nuclear envelope as flattened sacs or tubules. Rough ER secretes proteins. Smooth ER (extending off rough ER)detoxes (liver).
Organelle responsible for drug intolerances. Smooth ER
Golgi Complex "post office" Gets proteins from ribosomes of rough ER and packages and sorts and delivers them (out of cell, to membrane, or to organelles)
Lysosome (-lyso=dissolve) and processes Dissolving vesicle containing digestive enzymes that can recycle worn-out organelles (autophagy) or engulf entire cell in which it resides (autolysis).
Proteasome Very very small.Gets rid of nonfunctional/abnormal proteins.
Peroxisome Smaller than lysosome. Gets rid of the H2O2 it produces during cellular metabolism. (very abundant in liver as they break down alcohol)
Mitochondria "Powerhouse" making ATP by way of aerobic respiration reactions (lots in kidneys, heart, and liver). Contain there own DNA, from mother only since sperm head has few organelles. Cellular metabolism.
Created by: 741879016