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A+P Test 1 Ch3a

Plasma Membrane and Transport

Plasma Membrane Selective, flexible outer cell layer used for communication between cells.
Structure of Plasma Membrane Lipid Bilayer of Phospolipids. Heads are hydrophilic and face water cytosol and extracellular fluid. Hydrophobic (nonpolar) tails face each other.
fluid in cells intercellular/cytosol
fluid between cells interstitial fluid
Property of molecules that can more easily move through plasma membrane into cell. Nonpolar, uncharged molecules (O,CO2, steroids, fatty-acids, fat/lipid-soluble drugs such as antidepressants, fat-soluble vitamins A,D,E,+K) through simple diffusion.
Types of membrane proteins Integrated (transmembrane) Proteins (stationary, completely through membrane) and Peripheral Proteins (mobile, not all the way through membrane)
Function of Membrane Proteins Move material (such as all charged/polar molecules) in and out of cell. Some are enzymes.
Structure allows some substances to pass through it more readily than others. Selective Permiability
2 types of gradients cc gradient + electrical gradient = electrochemical gradient
A substance moving from a higher cc to a lower cc is moving ______ its ________. down its concentration gradient.
2 Main types of transport Passive Transport (no cellular E, down gradients) and Active Transport (require cellular E, up gradient)
This is intrinsic to all passive transports kinetic energy
Diffusion Passive mixing due to motion
Contributing factors to diffusion/kinetic energy transport Temp, mass and surface area of solute, diffusion distance, and CC gradient (how much of solute exists)
Diffusion of solute straight through lipid bilayer simple diffusion
2 types of facilitated diffusion Through channels (ion channels) or carriers (protein transporters used for large, charged proteins)(both are transmembrane proteins)
Diabetes loss of function control of protein transporters
Diffusion of a solvent (H20)through membrane no permeable to certain solutes. osmosis
2 ways water moves through plasma membrane simple diffusion or aquaporins = water channels
Pressures associated with osmosis hydrostatic pressure= pressure exerted by H2O (osmosis stops when 2 movements are equal) osmotic pressure= pressure exerted by solute (when applied pressure stops osmosis, it is equal to the osmotic pressure)
3 solution tonicities Isotonic (cc of solutes unable to cross cell membrane are equal in and out of cell), Hypertonic (greater cc of solutes outside of cell), Hypotonic (lower cc of solutes in solution than in cell)
Water drawn out of cell by hypertonic solution Crenation
Types of active transport and source of energy Primary active transport: Hydrolysis of ATP provides energy that changes the shape of a carrier protein, which "pumps" a substance against cc gradient. Secondary active transport: E stored in ionic gradient moves other substances against gradient.
Amount of ATP generated each day used by primary active transport 40%
Shuts down aerobic production of ATP, thus active transport. cyanide
Most prevalent primary active transport mechanism does what? Expels Na+ and brings in K+ (sodium-potassium pump)to keep steep cc gradient. The ionic cc gradient (like Na+) of primary is used to transport other ions or substances against gradient.
Secondary active transport mechanisms that carry two substances across membrane in opposite directions? Same direction? Antiporters. Symporters. (often powered by the Na+ gradient)
Active transport in "little bladders" Transport in vesicles
Materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane. endocytosis
Materials move out of a a cell in a vesicle formed inside the cell. exocytosis
Material moved successively into, through, and out of cell in a vesicle. Transcytosis (blood vessel walls)
Form of endocytosis in which cell "eats"/ engulfes large solid particles (such as worn-out cells, whole bacteria, or viruses). phagocytosis (phago=to eat) (done by few cells, such as white blood cells)
Form of endocytosis in which tiny droplets of extracellular fluid are taken up by the cell. pinocytosis (pino=to drink) (done by most cells)
Created by: 741879016