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A+P Test 1 Ch2b

Chem. Level-Organic

Organic Compound Contain C, usually H, and has covalent bonds.
Carbohydrate 1C:1H2O ("watered carbon") "Chemical Energy"
Monomers of carbohydrates Monosaccharides "simple sugars" have 3-7 Cs, indicated by name. Tri-oses, pent-oses, hex-oses...
2 monosaccharides combined by dehydration synthesis Disaccharides
3 examples of disaccharides Sucrose= glucose + fructose (both hexoses) Lactose= glucose + galactose ("") Maltose= glucose + glucose
Polysaccharides 10s to 100s of monosaccharides
3 examples of polysaccharides Cellulose (from plants. can NOT be broken down) Starch (from plants. CAN be broken down) Glycogen (from humans. Stored glucose chains)
Lipid 18-25% body mass on lean adults. C, H, O (NOT 1C:1H2O/ NOT 2H:1O). Hydrophobic.
3 forms of Fatty Acid Chains/fats or oils, structure, and examples. 1.Saturated (Each C has max H) ("bad fat"- solid at room temp- red meat,dairy).2. Monounsaturated (1 double bond in hydrocarbon chain/1 kink, "good fat"- olive oil, almonds, avos)3. Polyunsaturated (>1 double bond/>1 kink, "best fat"-fish+sunflower oil
Turns unsaturated fatty acid into saturated fatty acid. heat and pressure (does what to fat?)
Lipids essential to human life, but not found in body. Give ratio. Essential fatty acids (Omega 3s-flax seeds, fish oils, walnuts) (Omega 6s- bread, white rice, meat, eggs) Best ratio is 3:1. Cis-fat.
Used to make phospholipids and triglycerides. Broken down to make ATP. Fatty Acids
2 structures of unsaturated fatty acids Cis-fat (Hs on same side of C=C)(Nutritionally benificial) + Heat and Pressure (hydrogenation)= Trans-Fat (Hs on opposite side of C=C)(unhealthy.higher cholesterol)
Bad type of cholesterol LDL low density lipoprotein. Increased with more trans-fats. Transport cholesterol from liver to cells. In excess promotes thickening of artery walls.
Good type of cholesterol. HDL high density lipoprotein. Decreased with trans-fats. Removes excess cholesterol from cells, reducing blood cholesterol levels, and bring to liver for elimination.
Phospholipid 2 fatty acid chains (uncharged means hydrophobic) and a phosphate group with N(+ charge means hydrophilic). Found in most cell membranes.
Sterol A hydroxal (alcohol,"-ol", -OH) group attached to the 4 carbon rings. Type of steroid including cholesteral, cortisol, bile salts, estrogen, testosterone, Vitamin D, and
Proteins Large, complex molecules containing C,H,O, and N, and maybe some S. Many roles.
Catalyst proteins. Enzymes
% body mass is protein 12-18%
Monomer of proteins. Amino Acids (20 types)
Structure of amino acids An H and 3 groups attached to a central C. 3 groups: amino (base, -NH2) group, acid (carboxyl, -COOH) group, and a side chain.
Unique chemical identity of an amino acid. Side chain. 20 types.
Process that breaks down proteins. Hydrolysis / heat and pressure
Term for loss of function and shape Denaturation
Enzyme structure and function Apoenzyme (protein portion) and Cofactor (non-protein portion, usually a metal). Catalyst.
Properties of enzymes Under a variety of cell controls. Highly efficient (reactions 100mill-100bill x faster). Highly selective (each enzyme binds to specific substrates/reactant molecule).
co-enzyme works with the enzyme/catalyst. Is usually a vitamin.
Nucleic acid structure, monomers, and location Huge organic molecules (chains)containing H,C, O, N, and P, made of repeating nucleotides, found in a cell's nucleus. Hydrogen bonds stabilize the structure.
2 Forms of nucleic acids DNA (double stranded helix containing genetic info/made of genes) RNA (relays instructions from the genes to guide each cell's synthesis of proteins from amino acids, single stranded)
Nucleotides of DNA Adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
Nulceotides of RNA adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine
Amino acids are held together by what? Peptide bonds (covalent bonds between c of acid group and N of amino/base group)= proteins
Phases of cellular metabolism Anaerobic (Without oxygen, glucose only partially broken down into Pyruvic Acid and a couple ATP molecules) Aerobic (With oxygen, glucose is completely broken down into CO2 and H20 and the released E makes 36 or 38 ATP molecules)
ATP catabolized (exergonic reaction) to power cellular activities (endergonic reactions)
Created by: 741879016