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A+P Test 1 Ch2a

Chem. Level-Inorg.

# of elements in human body and major ones 26. 96% H, O, C, and N
Atom Smallest unit of matter
Parts of atom +Protons and neutrons (subatomic particles in nucleus), and -electrons in electron orbits.
Distinctive to specific element. # of Protons
Atomic Number # of Protons
Mass Number # of Protons plus # of Neutrons = mass of nucleus
Isotope Different Mass Number due to change in neutrons
Radioactive Isotope Unstable elements (trying to get rid off extra neutrons)
Half Life Time it takes for half of nucleus (neutrons) to decay to stable form.
Pure Atoms have what equal in number Protons and Electrons
Atomic Mass Average mass of an elements naturally occurring isotopes (usually class to mass #)
Ion Atom with a charge (+ or -)
Molecule Two or more atoms sharing electrons.
Compound Two or more atoms of DIFFERENT elements sharing electrons.
Positively charged ion Cation
Negatively charged ion Anion
Free radical and potential danger. Charged atom with unpaired electrons in outer shell. May take -e from living tissue, killing it.
Octet Rule Atoms like to have a complete outer shell (8 electrons, 2 if in first orbit)
Antioxidants Give e-s to free radicals. The f.r. are then disposed of naturally.
3 types of chemical bonds ionic, covalent, and hydrogen.
hydrogen bond The attraction between a positively charged H end of a molecule to a negatively charged end (usually O or N) of a molecule.
Ionic bond The attraction of oppositely charged ions, a cation and an anion. One atom gains electrons and one loses electrons
Covalent bond Two or more atoms share electrons. The more atom pairs shared, the stronger the bond.
Electrolyte An ionic compound that breaks into positive and negative ions in solution.
Chemical reaction New bonds form or old bonds break between atoms
Starting and ending substances of a chemical reaction. Reactants and Products (have equal masses)
Two principle forms of energy. potential energy (stored by matter due to its position) kinetic energy (matter in motion)
Two types of chemical reactions. Exergonic (release energy) and endergonic (absorb energy)
Energy needed to start a reaction. Activation Energy
Catalyst Chemical compounds (often enzymes) that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur. The catalyst remains UNCHANGED.
Inorganic compound Simple bonded (ionic or covalent), lack carbon (except CO2, HCO3, and H2CO3)
Organic compound Covalent bonds. Long chains of carbon and usually H.
parts of a solution solvent and solute
mixture Combination of elements that are unbonded.
Solution properties A mixture that will not settle out and where the solute particles are evenly dispersed and so small the mixture appears clear.
Colloid properties A mixture that will not settle out. The size of the solute particles are large enough that they disperse light and the mixture appears opaque (milk).
Suspension The solute may mix but will settle out with time (blood).
Solution concentrations are usually expressed in this form. mass/volume percentage
Total number of molecules in a volume. mol/L (to make a 1 mole solution of NaCl, dissolve 1 mole NaCl in enough H2O to equal 1 liter of solution)
Avogadro's Number 6.023 x 10 to the 23rd (# of particles in 1 mole)
Mole 6.023 x 10 to the 23rd particles. The mass of 1 mole in grams of element = atomic mass of element
How many grams in 2 moles of C(16)? 32 grams
How many particles in 1 mole of O(12)? 6.023 x 10 to the 23rd
How many particles in 24 grams of O(12)? 2(6.023 x 10 to the 23rd)
How many moles in 32 grams of C(16)? 2 moles
4 important properties of H20 1. High heat of vaporization (takes lots of energy to turn from liquid to gas). 2. High heat capacity (can absorb a lot of energy before increasing in temperature). 3. Water is a great lubricant (due to H bonds) 4. Water is a great solvent.
Hydrolysis Water molecules used to break down larger molecules into smaller molecules which can then be absorbed.
Dehydration synthesis reaction 2 smaller molecules join to form a larger molecule and a water molecule is one of the products.
Acid Substance that dissolves into 1 or more hydrogen (H+) ions (and 1 or more anions). ELECTRON ACCEPTOR
Base Substance that dissolves into 1 or more hydroxide (OH-) ions (and 1 or more cations). ELECTRON DONOR. Removes H+ from a solution.
Salt When dissolved, dissociates into anions and cations, neither of which is H+ or OH-. Often are electrolytes.
Base + Acid = Salt + Water
Electrolytes Ions in solution, creating electrical currents.
pH scale Concentration of H+ acid 1-6.9 neutral 7 (H+=OH-) base 7.1-14 (1 whole number change on scale = 10x H+ cc)
Human body pH norm and terms for either side. Norm 7.35-7.45. More acidic = acidosis. More basic = alkalosis.
Created by: 741879016