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Bones

Anatomy Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
Osteprogenitor cells undifferentiated cells becomes osteoblasts only mitotic cells of bone found in periosteum and endosteum
Osteoblast cells form true bone cells
osteocytes true bone cells
osteoclast cells tear down bone (destroy) secrete acid that leaches out of the minerals from bone (osteolysis)
Metaphysis between epiphysis and diaphysis
Diaphysis shaft of the bone
epiphysis ends of the bone
outer periosteum protection, repair, growth, nutrition, place for attachment fibrous CT, nerves, BVs, lymphnodes
inner periosteum bone building layer elastic fibers, BVs, osteoblasts and osteoclasts
endosteum CT, primary osteoclasts some blasts
Compact bone concentric circle formation thicker in diaphysis, dense, few spaces, overlays spongey, protection, support, resistant to stress
spongey bone "cancellous bone"
ossification making of osseous tissue (spongey and compact) intramembranous= fibrous tissue becomes bone endochondrial ossification=cartilage model overtime cells replaced by bone
trabecula bony strusts
epiphyseal plate found in metaphysis area region where bone increase in length
Zone of proriferating cartilage cells increase in # and stack on eachother
Zone of reserve cartilage chondrocytes are small, hooks epi plate to epiphysis
zone of hypertrophic cartilage chondrocytes mature; large cells; matrix starts to calcify; these cells will die
zone of calcified matrix dead cells; osteoblasts and capillaries from diaphysis invade the layer and bone formed here
long bone greater length than width, marrow cavity present i.e. femur, phalanges, humerus
short bone cube shaped, length=width i.e. carpals, tarsals
flat bone parallel layers of compact bone with spongey i.e. cranial bones, sternum, ribs, scapula
irregular bone varied amounts of both spongey and compact bone, irregular shape i.e. facial bones, vertebrae
Wormian Bone sutural bones of cranium; small clusters of bones in cranial suture
sesamoid bones small bones form in tendons where pressure is great i.e. wrist # varies person to person, patella same for all
axial skeleton 80 bones found in body's midline i.e. ribs, sternum, cranium/skull, vert. column
appendicular skeleton 126 bones including appendages and girdles
coronal suture frontal and parietal
sagittal suture parietal bones (2)
Lambdoidal suture occipital and parietal
squamosal suture parietal and temporal
fontanels little fountains soft spots in baby's skull hasn't yet turned to bone at birth
antifontanel diamond shaped, closes 18-24 mos.
posterior fontanel diamond shaped b/w parietal and occipital bones smaller, fuses earlier by 2 mos.
frontal bones forehead, anterior cranium, parts of orbits, ant. cranial floor,
superciliary arches swelling that form deep to eyebrows "brow ridges"
supraorbital ridge most sup. border of orbit
frontal sinuses deep to superciliary arches
supraorbital foramen in or immed. sup. to the supraorbital margins
Parietal Bone sides and sup. part of cranium houses BVs and nerves
Temporal Bone inferior, lateral of cranium
temporal squama superior border of temporal bone thin, flattened rim
zygomatic process (of temp. bone) articulates with the temporal process of the zygo. bone to form zygo. arch
Petrus portion inferior part of temporal bone includes inner ear, middle ear, carotid foramen, and jugular foramen
mandibular fossa depression close to zygo process receives condylar process of mandible TM joint
styloid process projects interioraly (temporal bone) muscle & ligament attachment reponsible for tongue and neck movement
mastiod process process located in mastoid portion
sphenoid bone "batwing bone" articulates with all other cranila bones, base of middle part of skull
Created by: 34207786