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UAMS Dysmorphology 5

Skin, Hair, Nails

Skin is both: An organ and a system
Epidermis Derived from surface ectoderm, migrate from neural tube in circumferential bands.
Basal Layer Replaces the surface cells as they slough off
Dermis Derived from mesoderm
Melanoblasts/melanocysts Pigment of neural crest origin, located in basal layer.
Sebaceoius glands secretes the sebum
Sweat glands secretes the sweat
Mammary glands Used to be sweat glands
Eumelanin Brown tinted
Pheomelanin Red color in red color in red hair, Freckles
Landmarks of skin Pigmentation, Thickness, Mobility, Elasticity, Strength, Creases, Dermatoglyphs,and Blaschko's lines
Minor Pigmented Nevi anomalies of the Skin Mongolian spot, Cafe-au-lait spot, Freckles, Lentigines, Hamartomatous, epidermal nevi, angiofibromas
Hamartomatous Benign mix type of cells. Not in the right spot but close.
Minor Vascular Nevi anomalies of the Skin Nevus Flammeus, Port wine stain, Telangiectases, Raised.
Deformations of the Skin Redundant neck skin, Redundant abdominal skin, Abnormal skin creases.
Dysplasias of the Skin Cutis Laxa, Hyperelasticity, Ichthyosis, Epidermolysis bullosum, Hypopigmentation, Hyperpigmentation, Premature thelarche, Absence of the sweat glands.
Malformations of the Skin Cutis Aplasia, Focal Dermal hypoplasia, Skin Tumors - Neurofibromas, Plexiform neurofibromas, Lipomas, Xanthomas, Nevi, Shagreen Pathes, Hypopigmentation - ash-leaf spots, Piebaldism, Vitiligo, Hyperpigmentation, Poikiloderma.
Incontinentia pigmenti: What is it and the 4 stages. X-Linked Dominant, Lethal in males, Any female is a mosaic. 1.) Born with blisters, 2.) Develop raised lines, 3.) Settles to streaky lines, 4.) Linear hypopigmenetation.
Hypomelanosis of Ito Multigenic, Even male to female ratio
Poikiloderma Mixture of Hypo, Hyper and Normal skin color.
Peutz-Jehger syndrome Brown/black macules
Hair Embryology Begins = Week 14 Direction of hair shaft = 15-19 weeks Lanug0 = 20 weeks to birth
Landmarks of the Hair Distribution, Whorls, Color, Eyebrows, Pubic/axillary hair
Minor anomalies of the Hair Low anterior hairline, Widow's peak, Supernumerary whorls.
Synophrys Cornelia De Lange
Embryology of the Nails Fingers separate and nails begin = Week 10 Nails to fingertip = 32-33 weeks Toenails lage behind.
Landmarks of the Nails Shape, Lunula, Cuticle, Curvature, Nail angle
Nail abnormalities Thickened nails, Dystrophic nails
Malformations of the Nail Narrow, Hyperconvex, Tapered, Broad, Small, Aplastic.
Created by: btkosewski