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Endocrine System P.1

Flashcards for lab test

QuestionAnswer
Target Cells any cells that contain membrane receptors for the hormones.
Exocrine glands secrete substance into a duct for transport and release onto a free surface of the body
Examples of exocrine glands sweat glands & sebaceous glands
Endocrine glands ductless glands. secrete hormones into surrounding extracellular fluid.
Two systems that regulate homeostasis the nervous system & endocrine system
Negative feedback stimulus causes a response that either reduces or removes the stimulus
Example of negative feedback regulation of insulin
Insulin hormone from the pancreas that lowers the concentration of glucose in the blood
Pituitary gland also called hypophysis. located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid. organized into anterior and posterior lobes.
Infundibulum stalk which attaches the pituitary to the brain at the hypothalamus
Adenohypophysis anterior lobe. consists darker staining cells
Neurohypophysis posterior lobe. consists mostly of lightly stained unmyelinated axons. does not produce hormones.
Pituitary Gland "Master gland" -critical role in regulating endocrine function and produces hormones that control the activity of many other endocrine glands.
Thyroid Gland consists of two lateral lobes connected by the isthmus. produces two groups of hormones associated with the regulation of cellular metabolism and Ca homeostasis.
What is the Thyroid gland composed of? spherical follicles embedded in connective tissue. On the superficial margins of the folliciles are C cells also called parafollicular cells.
What hormones does the thyroid produce? Thyroxine(T3) & triiodothyonine(T4) which regulate metabolic rate
What do C cells produce? the hormone Calcitonin(CT)
Function of Calcitonin? decreases blood Ca levels.
Parathyroid glands two pairs of oval masses on posterior surface of thyroid gland
Which hormone does the parathyroid gland produce? parathyroid hormone(PTH)
Function of Parathyroid hormone? important in maintaining blood Ca level by stimulating osteoclasts in bone to dissolve small areas of bone matrix and release Ca ions into the blood. Also stimulates Ca uptake in the digestive system and reabsportion of Ca from the filtrate in kidneys.
Adrenal glands(Suprarenal glands) protective adrenal capsule encompasses the gland.
The adrenal cortex is differentiated into which 3 distinct regions? Zona glomerulosa, zona fasiculata, zona reticularis
What hormones does the adrenal cortex secrete? corticosteroids-lipid based steroids.
What hormones does the zona glomerulosa secrete? Mineralocorticoids-regulate mineral or electrolyte concentrations of body fluids.
What is an example of a mineralocorticoid? Aldosterone
Function of aldosterone? stimulates the kidney to reabsorb Na from the liquid being processed into urine
What hormones does the zona fasciculata produce? glucocorticoids
Function of glucocorticoids? involved in fighting stress, increasing glucose metabolism, and preventing inflammation.
Two of the glucocoriticoids cortisol & corticosterone
What hormone does the zona reticularis produce? androgens
Function of androgens? male sex hormones. both males and females produce small amts of androgens
What hormones does the medulla produce? epinephrine & norepinephrine
What hormones does the pancreas produce? digestive enzymes, buffers, and other molecules
Pancreatic Islets(Islets of Langerhans) the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (i.e., hormone-producing) cells.
4 types of endocrine cells alpha, beta, delta, F cells
What hormone do the alpha cells secrete? glucacon-raises blood sugar concentration by catabolizing glycogen to glucose for cellular respiration
What do beta cells secrete? Insulin-lowers blood sugar concentration by promoting the removal of sugar from the blood
What is the normal blood plasma glucose concentration? 70-110 mg/dl
Created by: spectre22