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Infection an invasion of a body by organisms and the reaction of the body to the presence of those organisms and to the toxins that they produce; the presence and multiplication of an organism that results in harm or disease to a host
Toxin a substance that is harmful to cells
Disease a specific illness or disorder characterized by a recognizable set of signs and systems and attributable to heredity, infection, diet, or environment
Host an organism that serves as a permanent or temporary home for another organism
The harmful effects of an infection on a host may be the direct result of an action taken by a pathogen or the result of toxins produced by the pathogen
Pathogen an organism that is capable of producing disease in another organism
The ability of an infecting organism to harm a host is referred to as virulence
The ability of a host to avoid infection and reduce harm caused by infecting organism is called resistance
An infection may result in observable systems in a host, or the infection may occur without systems
Symptom a condition that occurs in association with a disease and that can be evidence of the presence of the disease. ex.fever, chills, sluggishness, rash, loss of appetite, or watery eyes
The period of time between the incidence of infection and the appearance of symptoms in a host is referred to as the incubation period
An infection in a host may be localized, limited to only one organ site, or it may be systemic, affecting the entire body
The hosts body produces special cells that recognize pathogens and destroy them
Communicable diseases are infections that can be spread from one human host to another through direct or indirect contact
The spread of infection can be reduced by using antiseptic practices, cleaning with disinfedtants, and sterilizing instruments and surgical materials
Antiseptic a chemical used to destroy or reduce the growth of pathogens
Disinfectant a chemical used to destroy or reduce the growth of pathogens on objects
Sterilize to destroy all of the pathogens on an object or in a substance
Some infections can be prevented through vaccinactions
Vaccinations the administrations of a medication that increases the bodys resistance to a specific pathogen
Once an infection has occurred, antibiotics can be used to improve the bodys ability to fight the infection
Antibiotic a special medication that slows or stops the growth of certain microorganisms
Localized infection an infection that involves only one organ or site of a hosts body
Also called local infection
Systemic infection an infection that has spread throughout a hosts body from an initial site
Acute infection an infection that runs a rapid and severe course and then ends abruptly ex: cold, measles, influenza
Chronic infection an infection that lasts for a long period of time—from weeks to several years Ex: advanced tuberculosis, or AIDS
Latent infection an infection that has no apparent symptoms Ex: malaria, or early tuberculosis
Mixed infection an infection that results from more than one organism Ex: appendicitis, or wound infections
Nosocomial infection an infection that is contracted in a hospital or other health
Primary disease the first occurring infection within a period of illness
Secondary disease a subsequent infection or complication to an existing condition
The most common portals of ENTRY for pathogens are breaks in the skin and natural body openings such as the nose, mouth, genitourinary openings.
Contagious communicable, such a a disease that may be transmitted by direct or indirect contact
Genitourinary referring to the structures and processes associated with urnary functions and reproduction
The most common portals of EXIT for pathogens are skin lesions and natural body openings such as the nose, mouth, genitourinary openings
Lesion a separation in tissue
Sputum substance expelled from the respiratory tract that may contain mucus, pus, cellular materials, blood, and other materials
Typically, a disease will spread from an infected hosts portal of exit to a second hosts portals entry
Hosts who have recovered from a disease or who are asymptomatic may be carriers and transmit the disease to others
Asymptomatic being without symptoms
Carrier an organism capable of spreading disease
Zoonosis spread to humans from animals
Zoonosis a disease of animals that is transmissible to humans from its primary animal host Ex: equine encephalitis, rabies, and yellow fever
Pathogens that live in the soil, on other surfaces, or in contaminated foods can also enter the body through portal of entry
Living hosts
Inanimate objects or materials
Inanimate non living
Fomite an inanimate object that is contaminated with pathogens and is capable of transmitting pathogens to a human hosts
Site of pathogen invasion
Antibacterial techniques
Normal flora
Bacteriocidins a medication that kills bacteria
Antibodies a specialized protein produced in the blood plasma in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigenic substances
Phagocyte a cell within the body that destroys invading organisms by engulfing and surrounding them
Ability to infect the capacity of an organism to cause disease despite a hosts resistance
Invasiveness the level of success an organism experiences upon entering a host; a measure of the number of organisms that are able to enter a hosts body
Toxigenicity the relative strength and the amount of toxins produced by an organism
Other terms:
Immunity the state of being protected from the effects of a pathogen, generally due to having received a vaccination or because of the body’s production of antibodies from a previous exposure to the organism
Susceptibility the degree to which a person is likely to contract a disease
Perspiration helps to cleanse the pores and raise the level of acidity on the skin
Tears rid the eyes of contaminants and help to seal and lubricate the eyelids to prevent entry of organisms
Saliva contains enzymes that help break down invading pathogens and prevent them from colonizing in the mouth
Vaginal secretions maintain a slightly acidic environment to prevent microorganisms from becoming established
Mucus provides a coating that prevents pathogens from making direct contact with the skin
Cerumen provides a coating that prevents pathogens from contacting delicate areas of the skin in the ear canal
Cerumen ear wax, a secretion of the ceruminous gland in the ear canal
Normal flora complete with invading microorganisms to prevent them from becoming established
Ciliated membranes present physical barriers to contaminated particles and help to hold mucus in place
Lysozymes inhabit the growth of bacteria in tears and saliva
Lysozyme an enzyme with antiseptic actions that destroy some foreign organisms
Digestive fluids inhabit the growth of bacteria in the stomach and intestines
Normal flora complete with invading pathogens
Flushing actions remove pathogens through the movement of liquids Ex: respiration
Protective reflexes generally expel contaminated substances from the body
Protective reflexes coughing, sneezing, vomiting, tearing of the eyes, or other action that provides protection against pathogens
Immunology the study of the ways in which the body resists infection
Genetic immunity immunity based on ones inherited genetic makeup rather than on the production of antibodies
Naturally acquired active immunity long term immunity acquired when a person contracts a disease and his or her body naturally produces antibodies in response to the pathogen and memory cells that protect that person from the pathogen
Artificially acquired active immunity long term immunity acquired when a person is given a vaccine and his or her body produces antibodies in response to the vaccine and memory cells that protect that person from the pathogen
Vaccine a suspension of diluted or killed microorganisms administered in order to stimulate the production of antibodies to promote an active immunity to that pathogen
Naturally acquired passive immunity temporary immunity acquired when antibodies are passed to a fetus through the mothers blood or to an infant through the mother’s milk when the infant is breast feeding
Artificially acquired passive immunity temporary immunity acquired when an immune serum is injected into a persons bloodstream
Immune serum a serum that is taken from another organism (animal or human) and that contains antibodies against a specific disease
Interferon response the process by which a cell releases chemicals that interfere with a viruses ability to reproduce within a cell
Phagocytosis the process in which a moving cell engulfs a mass of foreign material
Serum protein response
Inflammatory reaction the process by which tissues in an area of injury or infection work to trap pathogens in the area
Neutrophil a type of white blood cell that is the first to respond to an inflammatory reaction, where it performs phagocytosis on pathogens
Lymphocyte one of two types of white blood cells—a T cell or a B cell—that performes various functions related to recognizing, marking, and remembering pathogens based on their antigens
Monocyte a type of white blood cell that inlarges to form a macrophage in oder to perform more
Eosinophil a type of white blood cell that is belived to neutralize toxins such as those secreated by some pathogens
Basophil a type of white blood cell that, as a part of the inflamotary reaction, relases chemicals that allow the capillaries to be penetrated by white blood cells and other substances that accumulate at an infection site
Basophil is less than 1% of the white blood cells and contains:
Heparin a chemical that helps prevent abnormal blood clotting
Histamine a chemical that makes capillaries more permeable
Invasion the virus that enters a cell
Synthesis the infected cell that produces interferon
Fibroblast a flat, elongated cell in the connective tissue
Release the infected cell releases interferon into the bloodstream
Interference interferon chemically attacks the virus and prevents it from multiplying
Phagocytosis the infected cell and the inhabiting virus are engulfed by a phagocyte
Invagination a phagocyte folds part of its self to create pseudopods that pull a pathogen to the body of the phagocyte
Pseudopod an extension of the surface of a phagocyte; a “false foot”
Engulfment the pathogen is completely surrounded by the body of the phagocyte
Vacuole formation the phagocyte creates a vacuole around the engulfed pathogen
Fusing a lysosome fuses with the vacuole so that the contents of the lysosome are emptied into the vacuole containing the engulfed pathogen
Release the phagocyte releases the contents of the vacuole or dies and then eventually decomposes
T Cell type of lymphocyte that is formed either in the fetal thymus gland or in the bone marrow and passes through the thymus on its way to the lymph nodes and spleen
Marrow the inner structure of most large bones
B Cell type of lymphocyte that is formed in fetal bone marrow and moves directly to the lymph nodes and spleen
Helper T Cells seek out phagocytes that have engulfed pathogens and examine the antigens of captured pathogens; may also present the foreign antigen to B cells
Sensitized capable of being affected by a specific stimulus
Sensitized helper T cells divide rapidly to produce memory, Cytotoxic, and suppressor T cells
Memory T cells carry the imprint of a particular pathogens antigens and store the imprint in preparation for future invasions of the pathogen
Cytotoxic T cells chemically rupture the cell membrane of infected cells to prevent the pathogen from reproducing and also produce chemicals called cytokines that attract phagocytes to the area where the pathogen is located
Lysis a process of disintegration or dissolution (as of cells)
Suppressor T cells suppress the immune response once a foreign antigen has been destroyed
Inactive B cells reside in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes until exposed to the antigen of their target pathogen
Activated B cells divided into memory B cells and plasma cells
Memory B cells remember the antigen and will become involved in responding to any subsequent invasion by that pathogen
Plasma cells produce antibodies specific to a pathogens antigen and tag the pathogen cells for destruction by phagocytes
Cell mediated immunity
Humoral mediated immunity
Humoral referring to the old concept of the body having 4 basic humors of fluids, including the plasma in which Humoral
Phagocyte location T cells are released in a form called helper T cells to seek out phagocytes that have engulfed pathogens
Sensitization the T cells become sensitized to the pathogen antigens in the phagocytes
Cloning the sensitized helper T cells form other sensitized helper cells and memory, Cytotoxic, and suppressor T cells
Pathogen binding the cloned cells travel to the site of the infection and attach to the antigen of pathogen cells
Cytokine release the Cytotoxic T cells secrete cytokines to disrupt pathogen metabolism and to attach phagocytes to the area
Macrophage response macrophages migrate to the infection site and engulf pathogens and damaged cells
Suppression suppressor T cells secrete macrophage
Sensitization helper T cells present the pathogen antigen to B cells, which become sensitized to the antigen
Cloning the B cells form memory B cells and plasma cells
Antibody production the plasma cells produce antibodies specific to the pathogens antigin and tag the pathogen cells for destruction by pathogens
Macrophage response macrophages migrate to the infection site and engulf pathogens and damaged cells
Complement cascade enzymes in the plasma cause a chain of chemical reactions that result in the complement components rupturing pathogens cells and in other actions such as attracting neutrophils to the site
Lag phase the phase during which the body detects an unrecognized foreign antigen and begins to react
Primary response phase
Secondary response phase
Constriction the blood vessels constrict to allow blood to pool at the affected site
Constrict to grow smaller or narrower
Dilation the blood vessels dilate, and white blood cells gather in the affected site to fight infection
Dilate to grow larger or expand
Exudation the injured or infected cells secrete exudates that causes the area to swell
Exudates a substance that has oozed from a body, such as from a cell
Nonpathogenic strain a vaccine that contains organisms of the same genus as the arget pathogen but that are a species or subspecies that is not pathogenic
Ex: some influenza vaccines
Closely related microorganisms a vaccine that contains nonpathogenic organisms that are chemically similar to the target pathogen
Attenuated living pathogen a vaccine that contains live weakened or less
Killed pathogen a vaccine that contains nonliving or inactive pathogens Ex: vaccine for rabies, vaccine for typhoid fever
Extract of pathogen a vaccine that contains components of the pathogen, such as bacterial capsules
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, haemophilus b conjugate vaccine
Toxoid a vaccine that contains toxins or toxoids of the pathogen
Toxoid a toxin that has been modified so as not to be harmful
Hypersensitive response an excessive response by the bodys immune system to a foreign substance
Immediate hypersensitive response upon exposure to an allergen and due to an antigen/antibody reaction
Delayed hypersensitive response following exposure to an allergen and due to the body cells reacting to the allergen
Autoimmunity hypersensitive response to one’s own antigens
Isoimmunity hypersensitive response to antigen from one’s own species
Congenital present at birth as a result of conditions in the womb
Antiseptic a chemical used to destroy or reduce the growth of pathogens on peopke
Disinfectant a chemical used to destroy or reduce or reduce the growth of pathogens on objects
Broad spectrum antibiotic
Narrow spectrum antibiotic
Sterilization a process that destroys pathogens on surfaces
Pasteurization a process of heating a food to destroy pathogens in the food Ex: the pasteurization of milk
Public health to prevent the spread of illness
Food preservation to keep microorganisms from destroying food and to prevent the spread of disease through infected food
Production of sterile products to prevent contamination of the products during the production process
Research to produce pathogens under controlled circumstances to gain better understanding of them and to develop vaccines and other control measures for them
Immediacy of initial treatment the effectiveness of an antimicrobial procedure depends on how quickly the antimicrobial procedure was performed after the possibility of a microbial invasion
Interval between treatments the effectiveness of an antimicrobial procedure depends on how much time has passed between the initial antimicrobial procedure and a subsequent procedure
High temperature the effectiveness of an antimicrobial procedure is increased if the procedure is performed under extremely high temperature
Low temperature the effectiveness of an antimicrobial procedure can be increased if the procedure is performed under extremely low temperature
Concentration the strength of the antimicrobial substance used in an antimicrobial procedure can increase the effectiveness of the procedure
Type of microbe the effectiveness of an antimicrobial procedure increased when the proper procedure is selected for the type of microbe it will be used against
Number of microbes the effectiveness of an antimicrobial procedure increased if the procedure is initiated before there are a great number of microbes to be killed
Microbial defense the effectiveness of an antimicrobial procedure increased if the microbe has not been overly exposed to the procedure and has developed defenses against the procedure
Physical methods Barrier
Moist heat used to kill microbes through the combined effect of heat and water that is at a temp short to boiling
Dry heat used to kill microbes through the effects of heat from a source such as an oven or infrared light
Pressurized steam used to kill all microbes and their spores through the effects of an autoclave
Cold will not generally kill microbes but is used to slow their growth
Drying used to reduce the growth of fungi and bacteria
Radiation used to kill microbes on materials such as plastics that cannot be subjective to high temps
Ultrasonic waves used to kill microbes on materials that can be safely exposed to microwaves
Filtration used to control microbes in a fluid (liquid or gas) by forcing the fluid through a material with openings that allow the fluid to pass through but are too small to allow pathogens to pass through, leaving pathogens trapped in the materials
Chemical methods Antiseptic
Disinfectant used to destroy bacteria on inanimate objects
Sterilant used to destroy all organisms on inanimate objects
Improper hand washing techniques
Inappropriate use of antibiotics
False sense of security
Type of surgery performed on patient
Caregivers patient load
Type of care procedure performed
Facility staffing
Administration of an immunosuppressive agent
Staphylococcus aureus responsible for a number of post
Streptococcus species involved in “strep” throat, scarlet fever, pneumonia, rheumatic heart disease, and other communicable conditions
Esherichia coli responsible for various infections referred to as colitis
Colitis an inflammatory condition of the large intestine characterized by severe diarrhea, bleeding, and ulceration of the mucosa of the intestine
Pseudomonas aeruginosa presents a particular hazard for various infections to burn victims, patients with cystic fibrosis, and those patients with certain types of cancer where the skin and mucous membranes do not afford adequate protection
Mycobacterium species responsible for tuberculosis and leprosy and present particular hazard for various infections to patients with low resistance, such as those with AIDS, to those receiving immunosuppressors, and to those with pulmonary conditions
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) responsible for aids
Hepatitis B Virus Responsible for hepatitis
Human papilloma Virus Associated with several types of cancer, including cancers of the mouth and cervix
Total—isolation that requires a patient to have no contact with anyone
Also called strict isolation
Protective—isolation that requires that patient not be exposed to infection ricks
Enteric—isolation that requires protection with regard to a patients intake and output of food and liquids
Enteric pertaining to the intestine
Wound or skin—isolation that requires the use of barriers to prevent contact with moist areas
Also called drainage/secretion precautions
Respiratory—isolation that requires the use of a mask and separation of a patient from contact with other patients
Blood/body fluids—isolation that requires the use of gloves, other barriers, and proper disposal of body fluids and contaminated materials
Also called body substance isolation
Hands and other skin surfaces should be washed immediately and thoroughly if contaminated with blood or other body fluids
Handling of body fluids and specimens should only be done while wearing goggles, masks, gloves, and impermeable clothing
Venipuncture a procedure that involves puncturing a vein
Hands should be washed immediately after gloves are removed
Used sharps should be placed in disposable containers, using no touch passing
Sharps instruments such as scalpels, needles, tweezers, and other divices that are capable of separating flesh; also includes foreign bodies such as objects that may be removed from the body and then present hazards to health
Used needles should not be recapped
Staples should be used instead of sutures whenever possible
After they are used, disposable syringes and needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp items should be placed in puncture resistance containers for disposal
Reusable instruments and equipment should be subjected to a level of sterilization that will ensure terminal exposure for pathogens
Health care workers who have sores or skin conditions that exude fluids should refrain from all direct patient care and from handling patient care equipment until the condition resolves
Created by: llc1980