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UAMS Dysmorphology 4

Chest, Abdomen and Back

Difference between the 7 true ribs and the 5 false ribs? The true ribs articulate to sternum, false ribs to the costal cartilage above them.
Two main problems in the chest are because of? Mesoderm Migration or Differentiation of the cells.
Sternum is made up of what parts? Ribs, sternal bars, clavicles.
Pectus Excavatum Seen in Coffin Lowry syndrome. Surgical procedure to fix.
Pectus Carinatum Pidgin Breast. Seen in Homocystinuria. Surgical or breast plate.
Shield chest Turner syndrome.
Fused/Bifid ribs Gorlin Syndrome.
Scoliosis Deformation.
Dysplaisas of Chest Cleidocranial dysostosis, many bone dysplasias and mucopolysaccharidoses.
Malformations (most common) of Chest Poland syndrome - absent pectoralis major muscle. Beaded ribs and Short sternum, Cleft sternum, Ectopia Cordis.
Diastasis Recti The abs aren't connected so there is a gap which will bulge when the child cries or strains.
Umbilical Hernia Herniation of the intestines into the umbilicus.
Ventral Hernia Lateral herniation to the midline
2 vessel cord Single Umbilical artery, 1% of newborns
Deformations of the Abdomen Long Cord, Short Cord, Umbilical cord knot.
Disruptions of the Abdomen Absence of abdominal muscle - Prune Belly
Dysplasias of the Abdomen Hepatosplenomegaly, Shrunken liver. Size/consistency of liver and spleen.
Malformations of the Abdomen Omphalocele, Hernia into the umbilical cord, Gastroschesis. Situs Inversus, Meckel's diverticulum, Urachus, Inguinal Hernias.
Situs Inversus Major organs are reversed/mirrored. Totalis - Heart on right side Abdominus - Only organs below diaphragm are reversed.
Meckel's diverticulum Remnant of the vitelline duct or yolk stalk
Urachus Urachal sinus - Dilation into the bladder or at the umbilicus Urachal cyst - remnant of epithelial liniing of urachus Urachal Fistula - no closure.
Kyphosis Convex curvature. Spine is bowed out making a hump.
Lordosis Concave curvature. Achondroplasia.
Scoliosis Lateral curvature
Minor variants of the Back Trunk length, Lumbar Lordosis, Bifid Spinous (C2-C3, Sacral dimples, Pigmentation, Hair
Deformations of the Back Scoliosis, Gibbus, Platyspondyly, Winged scapulas, Unusual protrusion
Malformations of the Back Scoliosis, Scapular abnormalities, Hypoplastic scapulas, Pilonidal dimple tethered cord, Arnold Chiari, Lipomas, sacrococcygeal teratoma, Spinal dysraphism - Spina bifida occulta, Meningocele, Myelomenigocele, spinal rachischisis.
Arnold-Chiari malformation can be caused by tethered cord, Herniation of the cerebellum through the foramen magnum
Spina bifida occulta mildest form, marked by lipoma, hemangioma, hairy patch.
Meningocele Spinal membranes protrude through spinal canal, lower lumbar or sacral.
Myelomenigocle Most serious form of spina bifida. Problems with movement and sensation below the level of defect.
Spinal rachischisis Failure of fusion of a large part of neural tube, anencephaly iniencephaly.
Created by: btkosewski