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Stack #35801


Nonspecific and spacific (adaptive) line of defence are? Two intrinsic defense systems that act independently, but cooperatively to facilitate body defense.
Nonspecific body defenses are? The first and second line of defense.
First line of defense is? Skin and mucous membranes that help prevent entrance of microorganisms.
Keratin helps ? Maintain the skin.
Epidermis is? Heavily keratinized.
Keratin helps provide? A physical barrier.
Keratin is a? waterprof barrier for skin.
Keratin is resistant to? weak acid, bacterial, ensymes and toxins.
Intact mucosae provides? physical (mechanical) barriers as the cover and line body organs.
The acidity of secretions produced by some membranes are? vaginal membranes, gastric lining, stomach acid, tears. The help inhibit bacterial growth.
Sebrum contains? Chemical toxic to bacteria.
Sebaceous gland is? A normal gland of the skin which empties an oily secretion into the hair follicle near the surface of the skin.
Lacrimal gland ia? A small almond shape structure that produces tears.
Stomach mucose produced? Hydrochloric acid and protein digesting enzymes.
Saliva and lacrimal fluid contains? Lysozyme, which is an enzyme that destroys bacteria.
Mucus is? Sticky and traps microorganixms trying to enter respiratory and digestive systems.
Were is mucus? every were, cervix, mouth digestive track.
Some mucus have? Special structures, such as cilia or hair, to repel/trap invaders.
Second line of defense inhibits? invasion by microorganisms that manage to breech the second line of defense.
When skin and there products do not work what is next? Second line of defense.
Mucosae is? Any cell that produces the sticky stuff.
The invasion by microorganisms that manage to breech the first line of defense calls for? Second line of defense
Second line of defense includes 3 main defenses? Inflammation, defensive cells, antimicrobial proteins.
S.L.O.D. has five nonspecific defenses what are they? Inflammatory response, phagocytosis, natural killer cells, antimicrobial proteins, and fever.
Inflammation is caused by? cellular chemicals.
Inflammation triggered by injury to body tissues helps? prevent spread of invaders, dispose of cell debris and pathogens, initiate mechanism for repair.
Inflammation has four signs? Redness, heat, swelling, pain.
Inflammation has a possible fifth sign? Impairment of function.
Inflammation begins with the release of ? Inflammatory chemicals into extracellular fluid from cells such as phagocytes, most cells and lymphocytes.
Inflammation also includes the release of? blood proteins.
Some of the most important inflammatory chemicals include? Histamines, kinins, prostaglandins(PG), complement and lymphokines.
Inflammatory chemicals promote? vasodilation, which in turn causes Hyperemia (heat and redness).
Some inflammation chemicals increase? Permeability of capillaries so that exudate seeps from the blood into tissue spaces, causing swelling.
exudate means? Afluid rich in protein and cellular that oozez out of blood vessels due to inflammation and is deposited in nearby tissue.
Hyperemia means? Heat and redness.
Edema means? is an observable swelling from fluid accumulation in certain body tissues.
inflammatory chemicals that promote vasodilation helps cause what? edema.
Release of bacterial toxins and pressure from swelling cause what? Pain
How does edema atually help? It dilutes harmful substances, brings in large quantities of oxygen and other nutrients and allows entry of clotting proteins.
Inflammatory chemicals act as chemotactic agents to attract what? Neutrophils and other phagocytes such as macrophages to the inflamed area if pathogens are the cause of the inflammation.
If the epithelial barrier is breached, the epithelial mucosal cells will release what? broad-spectrum antibiotics called B-defensins.
Tactile means? Touch.
Factor means in the medical field? They need to know more.
Immune means? Free.
Chemotactic means? Chemical touch communication.
Leukocyte-inducing factors are released by? injured cells and facilitate defense by promoting rapid neutrophil release from bone marrow.
The release of leukocyte-inducing factors is called? Leukocytosis and it is a characteristic sign of inflammation.
Inflammatory chemicals act as? Chemotactic agents which are homing devices that attract more WBC's to the injured area.
Margination (pavementing) occurs when? Neutrophils cling to capillary walls as blood flow slows down.
Neutrophils move out of the capillaries and into tissue spaces by? Diapedesis (emigration).
After diapedesis (emigration) monocytes follow within hours. They change from phagocytic slugs into insatiable consumers known as? Macrophages, which have enormous numbers of lysosomes in their cytoplasm.
They predominate at sites of chronic inflammation? Macrophages they replace neutrophils as primary agents at the inflammation site.
What is a mixture of dead/dying neutrophils, broken tissue cells and living/dead pathogens? Pus
What are tumor-like growths of macrophages housing resistant bacteria. When formed it is covered with a fibrous capsule? Infectious granulomas.
These are cells that are specialized to do the process of phogocytosis (engulfment) on a grand scale. Therefore, they have large #'s of lysosomes in their cytoplasm what is it? Phagocytes
Phagocytic cells may also use alternative methods of pathogen destruction, such as? Respiratory burst
Created by: TChapple