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Neutralism a relationship between tow organisms in which the organisms present no significant benefit or harm to each other.
Squirrels and songbirds that live in the same tree share a neutralistic relationship. While there may be some competition for food and nest sites, the two species have little interaction. In parts of Africa herds of animals, like zebras and wildebeests, travel and graze together. The increased size may allow a greater degree of alertness to danger from predators, but there is essentially no direct benefit to either type of organism.
Parasitism A relationship between two organisms in which one organism is harmed by the presence of the other.
Parasitism is an important concern to all health professionals. The organisms that cause diseases in humans are generally parasites. Additionally, disease carrying organisms such as fleas and ticks are parasitic on humans.
Pathogenic A relationship between two organisms that live inside humans in mutualistic relationships. They are nonpathogenic.
However, other organisms that enter the body can cause a variety of diseases, generally through the production of toxins that disrupt normal cell functioning.
Classes of microorganisms 1 bacterium, 2 virus, 3 protozoan, 4 fungus, 5 worm, 6 arthropod.
Bacterium a widely distributed unicellular organism that may or may not cause disease.
The pleural of bacterium is bacteria. There are three primary ways of classifying bacteria. They are classified by their shape, by their arrangements, and by whether they require oxygen or not.
Virus a subcellular organism that reproduces as a parasite within other organisms and, consequently, is pathogenic.
Viruses are smaller than bacteria. They consist of DNA or RNA within protein shell of each virus has a distinct shape. During reproduction, the virus enters a cell in the host and uses the chromosomes and enzymes in the cell to replicate itself. The cell will then die. The severity of the disease depends on the kind of cell that is infected. Rabies, chickenpox, measles, influenza, cold sores, polio, and certain times of tumors are all the result of viruses.
Unicellular Consisting of one cell.
Host The organism that provides the resources required to sustain a parasitic relationship.
Protozoan A unicellular organism that is adapted for life in water and forms cysts that pass from host to host.
The plural of protozoan is protozoa. Many protozoa are pathogenic to humans. Some, such as those that cause amebic dysentary and glardiasis, are contracted by consuming infected food or water. Others, such as those that cause malaria, are spread by other organisms, such as mosquitoes.
Cysts a capsule that forms around microorganisms before they enter dormant periods.
Some microorganisms enter periods in which they are inactive, often because environmental conditions may not be favorable to them, such as during a drought. Cysts are also used to protect the organism as it moves from host to host, especially for parasites that require multiple hosts.
Amebic dysentary a condition of severe diarrhea often accompanied by blood and mucus that results form an infection of protozoa.
Giardiasis a condition of diarrhea caused by drinking water containing giardia.
Malaria A parasitic infection of red blood cells by plasmodium virus transmitted by the bite of certain mosquitoes.
Fungus a unicellular or multicellular organism that reproduces by means of spores and that may be pathogenic or nonpathogenic.
The plural of fungus is fungi. Many fungi, such as molds and mushrooms, live on dead matter and help to decompose it. In some cases, persons with weakened immune systems may experience serious illness and even death from inhaling spores that infect the pulmonary regions. A yeast induced illness is called a mycosis.
A yeast induced illness is called a mycosis.Unicellular fungi are called yeast, and many of them are pathogenic to humans, causing yeast infections in moist areas of the body, athletes foot, ringworm, and other conditions.
Spore the dormant form of a bacterium or the reproductive form of a fungus.
Worm A multicellular organism that in its parasitic form can be pathogenic to humans.
Generally referred to as helminths in the medical profession, parasitic worms can produce very serious infestations because they live inside the body and feed on the host's blood and nutrients. Many go through several life stages only some of which are parasitic or that require different hosts for each stage. Flukes, tapeworms, pinworms, and hookworms are examples of helminths that infect humans.
Infestation the presence of parasites in the environment, on the skin, or in the hair of a host.
Arthropod an invertebrate organism with six or more jointed legs and an exoskeleton.
All insects, arachnids, and creatures such as lobsters and crabs are arthropods. Some arthropods are parasitic on humans, including ticks, lice, and mites. Many, such as bees, spiders, and scorpions, carry toxins that can be harmful to humans, especially persons with allergies to arthropod venom.
Arthropods such as fleas, ticks, flies, and mosquitoes can present additional risks to humans by carrying infectious organisms that enter the bloodstream when the arthropod bites.
Invertebrate an organism that does not have an internal skeleton and specifically, a spinal column.
Exoskeleton a characteristic of some organisms in which the outer tissue of parts of the body are hardened to the point that they support attached softer tissues.
Allergy a condition of being highly sensitive to foreign substances that enter the body often because the persons immune system does not respond to the antigen of the substance.
Resident flora Organisms that normally live in and on the bodies of healthy persons without causing harm when located in specific sites.
Transient flora organisms that take up residence in or on the body temporarily in a location where they are not normally found.
A gram stain identifies the shape of a protein and indicates a positive or negative characteristic of the pathogen that allows preliminary of the organism as an aid to diagnosis.
the identification and treatment of a disease often depends on interpreting a limited number of clues, such as a person's symptoms. Another clue is the identification of the pathogenic organism involved. One method of identifying bacteria is the gram stain, in which and infected sample, such as saliva, is treated with a dye and examined under a microscope. The shape and color of the organism is apparent under the microscope.
Depending on whether the bacteria turn a bluish color or a reddish color, the bacteria can be classed as either gram negative or gram positive. Since a genus will react as either positive or negative and a shape may be particular to a genus or species, the gram stain is often enough to specifically identify an organism.
The tough outer cell wall gives a bacterium its shape.
Cocci and bacilli often colonize with each other so that another way of identifying bacteria is by the shape of their colonies.
Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, in which the chromosome duplicates itself and then the cell divides into two identical cells.
Aerobic species require that oxygen be present in order to reproduce.
Anaerobic species require that no oxygen be present in order to reproduce.
Facultative anaerobic species can preproduce with or without oxygen.
Facultative having the ability to adapt to more than one condition.
Rickettsiae are bacteria that can reproduce only within the cells of a living host.
Rickettsiae infect mammals and are often spread by arthropods.
Rickettsiae infections can be treated with antibiotics.
Viruses are nucleic acids within shells of protein.
Each virus exhibits a shape that is characteristic of that virus.
Viruses can only reproduce when they are within the living cells of a host organism.
A virus will use the nucleic acids and enzymes of an infected cell to produce other viruses, often multiplying to the point that the host cell ruptures and dies.
The severity of a viral disease depends on the type of cells that are infected.
Some viruses can become dormant so that they present no signs of infection and then become active again after a period of time, even years later.
Some viruses can be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her fetus.
Antiviral medications are difficult to develop because viruses reside inside cells, use the cells chemicals to reproduce, and offer few functions that can be attacked without harming the host organism.
Protozoa are unicellular, live in water and soil, can form cysts and become dormant, generally spread from food or water contaminated with cysts.
Fungi may be uni or multicellular, are normally found in and on the body, infections may result from the use of antibiotics or reduced resistance due to injuries or diseases, most are superficial but can spread to the inside of the body through spores.
Algae may be uni or multicellular, infestation generally occurs as a result of a break in the skin or a trauma, includes surgery, and is limited to the skin or bursa, skin lesions that resemble many other conditions the diagnosis must be confirmed through labs.
Parasitic worms live off nutrients in the host's body, in the host's blood, or on the host itself.
many parasitic worms have several stages of life involving eggs, larvae, and adult stages.
Parasitic worms generally inhabit specific body sites.
For some species of parasitic worms the inhabited site varies with the stage of development and may even involve more than one host species.
Mites and lice generally afflict the surface of a host's body and present little direct risk to the host.
Parasites such as lice, fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks may be vectors of disease.
Vectors of disease the conditions that tend to promote the spread of a disease, such as when the bite of an arthropod allows pathogens to enter a person's bloodstream.
Created by: llc1980