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brainstem soneira

brainstem packet self-study

QuestionAnswer
Name the three parts of the brainstem medulla, pons, midbrain
What brain structure largely covers the three parts of the brainstem? cerebellum
The brainstem is continuous inferiorly with spinal cord at foramen magnum
the brainstem is continuous superiorly with diencephalon
Where is the anterior median fissure? anterior (ventral) surface of brainstem on medulla
Where are the pyramids? one on each side of anterior median fissure
what is in the pyramids? descending fibers of corticospinal tracts
What happens to fibers of the corticospinal tract in the lower medulla? 90% decussate, or cross to contralateral side
When corticospinal tracts decussate, where do they go? descend in lateral funiculus of spinal cord as lateral corticospinal tract
What happens to fibers that do not decussate? descend in anterior funiculus as anterior corticospinal tract
A lesion on the right pyramid of the medulla above the decussation would cause paralysis or causes paresis on which side of the body? contralateral side..left side
A lesion on the right pyramid of the medulla below the decussation would cause paralysis or causes paresis on which side of the body? ipsilateral side...the right (same) side
Where is the olive? oval elevation lateral to upper part of pyramid
What forms the olive? inferior olivary nuclear complex
where does the rootlets of the hypoglossal nerve attach? between pyramid and olive in preolivary sulcus
where do the rootlets of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves attach? posterior to the olive at the postolivary (retro-olivary) sulcus
What are the rootlets of the vagus nerve in line with? attachment of rootlets of accessory nerve
What nerves attach along the medullopontine sulcus (medial to lateral) abducens, CN VI (most medial) facial, CN VII (bib = motor root, small = int.nerve) vestibulocochlear nerve, CN VIII
What is continuous on each side with a large fiber bundle that terminates in the middle cerebellar peduncle? Pons
What marks the anterior surface of the pons transverse bands that mark fiber bundles that originate at pons and enter cerebellum via pontocerebellar fibers (middle cerebellar peduncle)
Where does the trigeminal nerve attach? boundary between pons and middle cerebellar peduncle
What is the large root of the trigeminal nerve sensory root
what is the small root of the trigeminal motor root
What is the shallow groove along the anterior midline of the pons? basilar suclus which is related to basilar artery
What and where are the cerebral crura? 2 columns of descending fibers that emerge from the cerebral hemisphere run posteriolaterally then disappear into pons
What are found in the cerebral crura? What structure do they mark? fibers that originate in cerebral cortex and go to brainstem or spinal cord Marks midbrain
What nerve attaches to the medial border of the cerebral crus? oculomotor nerve, cn III
What is the name of the space in between the cerebral crura? interpeduncular fossa
Since many blood vessels penetrate it, what is the floor of the interpeduncular fossa called? posterior perforated substance
The small cavity in the "closed" part of the medulla is a continuation of what? central canal of the spinal cord
The upper/open part of the medulla forms the floor of what? floor of the 4th ventricle
What has to be removed to view the posterior surface of the brainstem? cut 3 pairs of cerebellar peduncles to remove cerebellum
Which cerebellar peduncle is the one that can be seen from the front? the middle, superior and inferior are only visible from back
What do the alar plates give rise to? sensory nuclei of the spinal cord, though actually interneurons, not true sensory neurons
What do the basal plates give rise to? motor nuclei of the spinal cord, really interneurons because transmit to muscles
Which plates, alar or basal, are located in the dorsal horn alar
What does the sulcus limitans becomes as you descend from the medulla? central canal of spinal cord??
What is the boundary between sensory nuclei and motor nuclei (alar and basal) sulcus limitans
What is the position of the alar plate adn continue into fourth ventricle? becomes lateral to basal plate
What is the position of the alar to basal plates in the closed medulla? posterior
When the alar plates rejoin at the midline what happens to the cavity of the 4th ventricle It shrinks to become the small cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain.
The gracile and cuneate fasciculi terminate where? Superiorly in the closed medulla at the gracile and cuneate tubercles
What forms the gracile and cuneate tubercles? Which direction are the fibers running? the corresponding nuclei are relay stations for the ascending fibers of each that terminate there
What do the ascending fibers of the gracile and cuneate fasciculi carry? sensory information: discriminative touch, proprioception, vibration
On which side of the brain stem are the gracile tubercle and cuneate tubercle? posterior (dorsal)
What forms a prominent elevation in the posterolateral medulla, superior to gracile and cuneate tubercles Restiform body (rope-like)
What part of the medulla carries impules from medulla and spinal cord to cerebellum (cerebellar afferent fibers)? restiform body
what creates two structures join to create the inferior cerebellar peduncle? juxtarestiform body & restiform body which ascend then turn backward to enter cerebellum
What is another name for the 4th ventricle? Rhombiod Fossa
What divides the 4th ventricle into right and left halves? median sulcus of the rhombiod fossa
What longitudinal sulcus is found in each half of the rhomboid fossa sulcus limitans
What is the area between the median sulcus and the sulcus limitans? medial eminence of 4th ventricle
What nuclei are located between median sulcus and sulcus limitans in the 4th ventricle? cranial nerve motor nuclei
Where are cranial nerve sensory nuclei located in relation to the sulcus limitans in the 4th ventricle? lateral to the suclus limitans
the two small triangular areas found int he lower part of the medial eminence are called? Which is medial? The hypoglossal trigone is medial to the vagal trigone in the closed medulla
What lies deep to the hypoglossal trigone and vagal trigone? hypoglossal nucleus and dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, respectively
What does the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus do? visceral, parasympathetic?
Name the rounded elevation of the medial eminence located in the lower pons that marks the location of the abducens nucleus? Facial colliculus
What else does the facial colliculus mark along with abducens nucleus? Internal genu of facial nerve
What is the internal genu of facial nerve? fibers that originate from the facial nucleus and loop around the abducens nucleus to form the facial collicus.
lateral to the sulcus limitans in the upper medulla and lower pons is an "area" that marks what? the vestibular area marks the location of the vestibular nuclei
What does the vestibular nuclei gather? It is a sensory nuclei that receives information from the inner ear to help maintain balance.
What is the boundary between the pons and medulla? the straie medullares of 4th ventricle: white strands that cross on dorsal surface of brainstem at the widest part of rhomboid fossa.
Where do striae medullares of 4th ventricle cross the medulla? At the widest part of the rhomboid fossa on the dorsal surface of the brainstem
What does the Obex delineate? Where is it located? below is the closed medulla at the tip of the 4th ventrical
What are the four elevations that mark the posterior surface of the brain stem? Role? 2 inferior colliculi - part of auditory 2 superior colliculi - part of visual
How are the inferior colliculus connected to the thalamus? connected to medial geniculate body (part of thalmus) by brachium of inferior colliculus
The brachium of the superior colliculus connects it where? brachium connects superior colliculus to lateral geniculate body, also part of thalmus
which part of the epithalmus is a component of the diencephalon? Where is it located? the pineal body/gland is located between superior colliculi
What lies between the superior colliculi, though it is not a part of the brainstem? pineal body/gland
What nerve attaches to brainstem? It is the only one on posterior surface of brainstem. Trochlear (IV) attaches below inferior colliculus
What are the two groups of Efferent fibers? Visceral and Somatic
Where do efferent fibers run? motor fibers from brainstem to effector
What are the two classifications of Visceral efferent fibers? Somatic? General (General Visceral Efferent)=GVE Special (Special Visceral Efferent)=SVE Somatic only has General = GSE
What do the fibers innervate and which nerves contain the General Visceral Efferent Fibers? preganglionic parasympathetic fibers, CN's III, VII, IX, X
What do the fibers innervate and which nerves the Special Visceral Efferent Fibers? innervate skeletal muscle from pharyngeal (brachial) arches not somites of mesoderm CN V, VII, IX, X
What do the fibers innervate and which nerves are the General Somatic Efferent fibers innervate skeletal muscle derived from somites and somitomeres Cn III, IV, VI, XII
What do the fibers innervate and which nerves are the General Visceral Afferent fibers? carry sensory info from internal organs CN IX
What do the fibers innervate and which nerves are the Special Visceral Afferent fibers? carry olfactory and gustatory info CN's I, VII, IX, X
What do the fibers innervate and which nerves are the General Somatic Afferent fibers? carry sensory info from skin, musc. tendons, ligaments CN's V, VII, IX, X
What do the fibers innervate and which nerves are the Special Somatic Afferent fibers? carry visual, auditory, balance info Cn's II and VIII
What fibers would carry messages that your stomach or bladder were full? GVA
What fibers would carry message that your were having a heart attack: Pain? GVA
What fibers carry baroreceptor readings such as carotid sinus? GVA
What fibers carry stimulation from chemical sources,where a molecule actually binds a receptor? SVA
What fibers carry information to the brain about touch, temp, vibration GSA
What is the most important GSA nerve? How can we tell? Trigeminal, it has the most fibers
What fibers would carry physical sensations such as vision, hearing or balance to the brain? SSA
What GSE nucleus is located in the midbrain at the level of the superior colliculus? oculomotor nucleus
What GSE nucleus is located in the midbrain at the level of the inferior colliculus? trochlear nucleus
What GSE nucleus is located in the lower pons deep to the facial colliculus of the rhomboid fossa? abducens
What GSE nucleus is located in the medulla medial to the dorsal motor vagal nerve? hypoglossal nucleus
Which motor nuclei give rise to preganglionic parasympathetic fibers? general visceral efferent (GVE)motor nuclei
Which motor nuclei are located close to the midline and adjacent to the ventricular system? general somatic efferent (GSE)motor nuclei
What GVE nuclei is located in the midbrain at the level of the superior colliculus, immeadiately posterior to oculomotor nucleus? Edinger-Westphal, cn III nucleus
The GVE nucleus or what CN is located in the lower pons? supeior salivatory nucleus of CN VII
The GVE nucleus of what CN is located in the upper medulla? inferior salivatory nucleus of CN IX
The GVE nucleus of what CN is located in the lower medulla lateral to the hypoglossal n. dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, CN X
What special visceral efferent motor nuclei innervates mm. derived from 1st pharyngeal arch? trigeminal motor nucleus
What are the muscles derived from 1st pharyngeal arch? muscles of mastication: masseter, termporalis, medial and lateral pterygoids
Where, Which, what type is the motor nuclei that innervates muscles derived from the 2nd pharyngeal arch? lower pons, SVE, facial nucleus
Where, which, what type is the motor nuclei that innervates muscles derived from the 3rd, 4th, 6th pharyngeal arches? medulla, nucleus ambiguus, SVE fibers to CN IX and X
What are the muscles of the 3rd, 4th, 6th pharyngeal arches? muscles of pharynx, larynx and soft palate
What is the most important general somatic afferent sensory nuclei? Location? trigeminal sensory nucleus, has three parts and extends the entire length of brainstem
What part of the trigeminal GSA nucleus extends from lower pons to medulla-spinal cord junction? What does it recieve? spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve, receives mostly pain and temperature information
What part of the trigeminal GSA nucleus is in midpons? What does it receive? principal sensory (pontine) nucleus of trigeminal nerve. receives touch information
What part of the trigeminal GSA nucleus extends from midpons to upper mid-brain junction? What does it recieve? mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve, receives proprioceptive information
Which and what type sensory nuclei receive auditory information from the organ of Corti (inner ear)? By what nerve? cochlear part of VIII travels to ventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei which are SSA, special somatic afferent
Where are the ventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei located? posterolaterally at pontomedullary junction on surface of restiform body - this is the widest part of the rhomboid surface
How many vestibular nuclei exist? Where are they? 4, superior, inferior, medial and lateral posterolateral part of upper medulla, lower pons underneath vestibular area of rhomboid fossa
What is the purpose of the vestibular nuclei? recieve information from teh maculae and ampullary crest (inner ear) via the vestibular part of CN VIII
Where are the two parts of the solitary nucleus located? medulla
Which part of solitary nucleus receives SVA fibers for taste? From what nerves? What is another name for it Gustatory nucleus of upper part of solitary nucleus receives from CN VII, IX, X
Which part solitary nucleus receives GVA fibers? Another name? Cardiorespiratory nucleus is the lower nucleus, receives fibers from cn IX, X
Created by: El Diablo