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AP Euro History Ch23

1. the "weekend" a distinct time of recreation and fun, and new forms of mass transportation
2. Coney Island and blackpool with their ferriswheels and other daring rides that threw young men and women together, amusment parks offered a whole new world of entertainment
3. "day-trippers" the upper class complained about the parks being opened to more lower class citizens
4. Thomas Edison and Joseh Swan opened homes and cities to illuminate by electric light
5. Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876
6. Guglielmo Marconi sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901
7. internal combustion engine fired by gas and air, unsuitable for a widespread use as a source of power in transportation until the development of liquid fuels
8. Gottlieb Daimler invented a light engine
9. Henry Ford revolutionized the car industry with the mass production of the model T
10. Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first flight in a fixed-wing plane powered by a gas engine
11. cartels independent enterprises worked together to control prices and fix production quotas, thereby restraining the kind of competition that led to roduce prices
12. the assembly line used rimarily in manufactoring nonmilitary goods, such as sewing machines, typewriters, bicycles, and eventually automobiles
13. Second Industrial Revolution played a role in the emergance of basic economic patterns that have characterized much of modern European economic life
14. sweatshops and "sweating" the desperate need to work at times forced women to do marginal work at home or labor as pieceworkers in sweatshops, "sweat" referring to the subcontracting piece working usually, but not exclusively , in the tailoring trades
15. white-collar jobs the development of larger industrial plants and the expansion of government services created a large number of services
16. Contagious disease Acts gave authorities the right to examine for venreal disease
17. Wilhelm Liebknect and August Bebel two Marxist leaders,
18. Social Democratic espoused revolutionary Marxist rhetoric while organizing itself as a mass political party competing in elections for the reichstag
19. Jean Jaures the leader of french socialism, an independent socialist who looked to the french revolutionary tradition rather than Marxism to justify revolutionary socialism
20. May Day May 1, was made an international labor day to be marked by strikes and mass labor demonstrations
21. Marxist "revisionism" a severe challenge to the orthodox marxist osition
22. Eduard Benstein Challenged marxist orthdoxy with a book titled Evolutionary Socialism in which he argued that some of Marx's ideas had turned out to be quite wrong
23. Michael Bakumin and anarchism believed that small groups of well-trained, fanatical revolutionariies could prepetrate so much violence that the state and all its institutions would disintegrate
24. Public Health Act of 1875 prohibited the constrution of new building without running water and an internal drainage system
25. V.A. Huber and Octavia Hill to huber, good housing was a pre-requisite for a stable family life and hence a stable society; granddaughter of a celebrated social reformer
26. garden city movement which advocated the construction of new towns separated from each other by open country that would provide the recreation al areas, fresh air, and sense of community that would encourage healthy family life
27. plutocrats aristocrats conesced with the most sucessful industrialists, bankers and merchants
28. Consuelo Vanderbilt Married the dutch of Marlborough to gain 10 million dollars
29. domestic servants day laborers, who worked irregularly for very low wages
30. Lord Tennyson's The Princess pointed out that this traditional characterization of the sexes, based on gender-defind social rules, was elevated to the status of universal male and female attributes
31. Aletta Jacob and "family planning" was the suggestion of reformers who thought that the problem of poverty could be solved by reducing the number of children among the lower classes
32. Boy Scouts provided organized recreation for boys between the ages of twelve and eighteen; adventure was combined with discipline of earning merit badges and ranks in such as a way to instill ideals of patriotism and self-sacrifice
33. "yellow press" They were written in an easily understood style and tended toward the sensational
34. music halls and dance halls Promoters gradually made them more respectable and broadened their fare to entice both women and children to attend the programs; more stricted towards adults
35. Thomas Cook A british pioneer of mass society, had been responsible for organizing a railroad trip to temperance gatherings in 841
36. the football association and national and american leagues organized athletic groups, had a complete monopoly over professional baseball
37. reform act of 1884 it gave the right to vote to all men who paid regular rent or taxes
38. Irish home rule self-government by having a separate parliment but not complete independence
39. France's third republic The french people rejected the republicans and overwhemingly favored the monarchists
40. the commune an independent repulican government in Paris
41. General Georges Boulanger was a popular military officer who attracted the public attention of all those discontented with the Third Republic
42. Spanish-American War spain was defeated,
43. Cuba and the Philiines increased the discontent with the status quo
44. the Reichstadt The German army escaped control of them by operating under a general staff responsiblt only to the emperor
45. Kulturkampf "struggle for civilization"
46. Bismarck's welfare legislation attempted to woo workers away from socialism
47. William II the new emperor, eager to pursue his own policies, cashiered the aged chancellor
48. Magyarization The Magyar language was imposed om all schools and was the only language that could be used by government and military officials
49. Alexander III and Nicholas II pursued a radical russification program of the numerous nationalities that made up the Russian Empire; Alexanders weak son, adopted his father's conviction that the absolute power of the tsars should be preserved
50. Russification served primarily to anger national groups and create new sources of opposition to tsarist policies
Created by: ambrecooper