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PSSA Grade 8 Reading

8th grade PSSA reading vocabulary

Rising Action the major conflicts in a story
Conflict the problem in the story
Personification Human traits are given to inanimate objects ex. The leaves danced across the lawn.
Metaphor a figure of speech that suggests, without saying, that one thing is like another ex. The room was a beehive of activity
Simile A figure of speech where one thing is compared to another that is different by using like or as. ex: The professor was as wise as an owl.
Hyperbole a figure of speech consisting of an extreme exaggeration not meant to be taken literally. ex: Mom took me to a million stores today.
Irony the opposite of what you expect
Bias a judgment based on a personal point of view
Author's Purpose the author's intent either to inform or teach someone something, to entertain people, or to persuade or convince their audience to do or not do something
Alliteration the repetition of consonant sounds
Allusion an implied or indirect reference in literature to a familiar person, place, or event
Autobiography the story of a person's life written by him or herself
Biography the story of a person's life written by someone else
Cause and Effect cause statements stem from actions and events, and effects are what happen as a result of the action or event
Climax the high point of suspense in a story
Compare similarities between two things
Conflict the problem or struggle in a story
Context Clues information from the reading that identifies a word or group of words
Contrast differences between two things
Dialogue conversation between people in a literary work
Differentiate to recognize and tell apart differences between two or more items
Editorial a newspaper or magazine article that gives the opinions of the editors or publishers; an expression of opinion that resembles such an article
Fiction a story or novel that is not true; it is made up from the imagination
Figurative Language language that cannot be taken literally
First Person Point of View a personal point of view using the "I" point of view. May also contain me, our, we, us
Free Verse poetry that does not have meter or rhyme scheme; It sounds more like regular speech
Generalization a broad statement
Imagery appeals to one or more of the five senses
Main Idea the main idea is the author's central thought; the topic sentence of a paragraph
Mood the emotion or feeling created in the reader
Narrative text that tells a story
Nonfiction text that is true
Onomatopoeia words that make their sound
Plot the sequence of events in a story; the structure often includes the exposition, rising action, climax, and the resolution
Point of VIew the perspective in which a story is told
Sequence an order of events in time order OR by using time order words (first, second, next, then)
Resolution/Denouement the end of the conflict in the story
Rhyme words that have similar consonant or vowel endings therefore the words sound alike
Rhythm the beat of a poem
Setting the time and place; where a story unfolds
Symbolism something that represents more than itself
Theme the major idea or insight of a literary work
Third Person Point of View the story from a narrator's point of view (he, she, it, they, them, their, her, or his)
Tone the attitude of the author toward the audience, characters, or a subject
Exposition introduces the characters, setting, and conflict of a story
Internal Conflict a problem within yourself (man vs. self)
External Conflict a problem with an outside force ( man vs. man, machine, super natural, nature, society)
Character Traits qualities a character possesses
Foreshadow hints or clues as to what is going to happen later in a story
Protagonist the main character in a story
Antagonist the person who has a conflict against the protagonist
Motivation the reason why a character feels or thinks a certain way
Genre a category used to classify literary works: drama, fantasy, mystery, etc.
Primary Source text or first-hand account of an event; example: interview
Secondary Source sources which are taken from an original work; example: books
Homophone words pronounced the same but have a different meaning and spelling; here and hear
Paraphrase to restate the information in your own words
Fact a statement that is true and can be proven
Opinion what someone thinks or feels; it can be argued
Stanza a verse or paragraph of a poem
Synonym words that have similar meaning; joy and happy
Antonym a word that is the opposite of another word; happy and sad
Assonance the repetition of vowel sounds to create an internal rhyme
Created by: mrsdoyle
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