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A & P


what's the average weight of the heart 250-300 g
what's the amount of blood the heart pumps per min/day 5.5L/min or 8000L/day
what are the two parts of the pericardium fibrous pericardium and serous pericardium
what type of tissue is the fibrous pericardium made of tough dense CT
what are some of the functions of the fibrous pericardium protects; anchors the heart; prevents overfilling
which pericardial layer is the outer layer fibrous pericardium
which pericardial layer is also the epicardium of the heart wall visceral layer of the serous pericardium
what makes up the myocardium cardiac muscle and supporting CT
from where does blood enter the right atrium inf. and sup. vena cava, coronary sinus, and anterior cardiac veins
from where does blood enter the left atrium 4 pulmonary veins
from which ventricle does blood enter the aorta left ventricle
from which ventricle does blood enter the pulmonary trunk right ventricle
from which blood vessel do coronary arteries originate and along what groove do they run aorta; atrioventricular groove
which cardiac veins enter the heart directly and where anterior cardiac veins enter right atrium directly
what cardiac veins enter the coronary sinus great, middle, and small cardiac veins.
name the right atrioventricular valve tricuspid
what's the function of the AV valves to prevent backflow of blood into the atria
what are the chordae tendinae made of collagen
how many cusps make up a semilunar valve three
what two factors contribute to the independent coordinated activity of the heart gap junctions; the heart's intrinsic conduction system
what are the membrane potentials fo the autorhythmic cells called pacemaker potentials or prepotentials
what cation causes the rising phase of the action potential in autorhythmic cells Ca2+
name the locations where autorhythmic cells can be found SA node, AV node, AV bundle, right and left bundle branches, ventricular walls (Purkinje fibers)
where is the SA node located right atrium
how and to where does depolarization spread from the SA node via gap junctions to the AV node
what that factors are responsible for ventricular depolarization Purkinje fibers and cell to cell transmission via gap junctions
does the cardiac conduction system make the heart beat faster or slower than without it faster
which branches of the ANS increases heart rate and force of heartbeat sympathetic
what part of the brain contains the neurons that control heart rate medulla oblangata
via which nerve does the parasympathetic center send impulses to the heart vagus
what do the terms diastole and systole refer to diastole = relaxation; systole = contraction
true or false. each ventricle pumps the same volume of blood per beat true
what is cardiac output amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute
what is responsible for the heart sounds heard on a stethoscope closing of valves
what is the quiescent period the period of total heart relaxation
what causes the first heart sound closing of the AV valves
what causes the second heart sound closing of the semilunar valves
what is the tunica interna made of endothelium and loose CT
what is the tunica media made of smooth muscle and elastic fiber sheets
what makes up most of the tunica externa collagen fibers
where is the tunica media thicker, arteries or veins arteries
where is the tunica externa thicker, arteries or veins veins
which blood vessels are most responsible for maintaining blood pressure, arteries or veins arteries
what layer are really small arterioles and veins missing tunica externa
what are the 4 processes involved in respiration ventilation, external respiration, transport of respiratory gases, internal respiration
what is external respiration gas exchange between the blood and the airsacs in the lungs
what is internal respiration gas exchange between the blood and tissue cells
what types of cells make up the respiratory mucosa ciliated simple columnar cells and goblet cells
what types of cells line the alveoli type 1 or simple squamous cells
what are type 2 cells cuboidal cells which secrete surfactant
what comprises the respiratory membrane alveoli together with the pulmonary capillary endothelium
list the main functions of the kidneys excretion; regulation of blood volume/composition; production of erythropoetin; metabolism of vitamin D to active form; production of renin (for BP regulation)
which part of the kidney contains the collecting ducts medulla
what is the name given to a glomerulus and the glomerular capsule renal corpuscle
which structure collects urine from the collecting ducts and drains into the ureters renal pelvis
which arteriole feeds the peritubular capillaries, afferent or efferent. efferent
what comprises the filtration membrane fenestrated endothelium of glomerular capillaries; basement membrane; podocytes of the Bowman's capsule
are podocytes found on the visceral or parietal layer of the glomerular capsule visceral
which nephrons play a key role in the kidney's ability to produce concentrated urine juxtamedullary nephrons
how much blood is filtered by the kidneys each day 50 gal
how much fluids and solutes are reabsorbed by the kidneys each day 49 gal
what do we call the cells of the stomach which produce HCl oxyntic or parietal cells
what else do oxyntic cells secrete and what is that product used for intrinsic factor which is needed for vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine
which cells produce pepsinogen chief cells or zymogenic cells
what else do chief cells produce in very insignificant amounts lipases
what are some of the substances secreted by enteroendocrine cell gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, somatostatin
how much bile does the liver produce daily 500-1000 ml
what are the 4 lobes of the liver called left, right, caudate, quadrate
what are the functional units of the liver lobules
what are the macrophages in the liver sinusoids called Kuppfer cells
into what part of the intestine is bile released duodenum
what is another name for the eyelids palpebrae
what is inflammation of the tarsal glands called chalazion
what is sty inflammation/infection of ciliary or non-tarsal glands
what does the caruncle contain sebaceous and sweat glands - it has a white secretion
what is the conjunctiva a transparent mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and whites of the eye
what makes up lacrimal fluid mucous, antibodies, lysozymes
what is the composition of vitreous humor collagenous fibers
what are the three tunics of the eye sclera, uvea (choroid), retina
what is the cornea made from it's a clear collagenous layer
what covers both sides of the collagenous layer of the cornea epithelial sheets that allow regeneration
what makes up the uvea blood vessels, iris and ciliary body
what is the iris colored part of eye that acts as diaphragm to open and close the pupil
what is the iris made of smooth muscle
what is the function of the ciliary body it controls lens shape and secretes aqueous humor
what is the lens made of crystalline proteins
in phototransduction, what is the sequence in which neural signal is carried photoreceptors => bipolar cells => ganglion cells => optic nerve
which photoreceptors work in dim light rods
where is the olfactory epithemium located in the upper part of the nasal cavity
after a neural signal goes to the olfactory bulb, what other two areas can it go to next olfactory cortex and limbic system
what separates the outer ear from the middle ear eardrum or tympanic membrane
what key structures are in the middle ear malleus, incus, stapes (the ossicles)
what major structures are in the inner ear vestibule, cochlea, and semicircular canals
which structure contains the receptors for hearing cochlea
what structures are involved with equilibrium vestibule and semicircular canals
what are some things which can cause tinnitis inflammation of the middle ear, cochlear nerve degeneration, side effect of medications
what is tinnitis ringing or clicking sound in the ears in the absence of auditory stimuli
what inputs are necessary for our sense of equilibrium inputs from inner ear, vision, and stretch receptors
what do the equilibrium mechanoreceptors sense they sense position and acceleration
name the sensory receptors located in the vestibule maculae
name the sensory receptors located in the semicircular canal cristae
what type of motion do the hair cells in the maculae sense, linear or rotational linear
what drugs depress vestibular inputs dramamine and bonine
name the three types of granulocytes neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
these WBC release histamine from their granules basophils
what type of nuclei do agranulocytes normally have spherical or kidney shaped
what are the two types of stem cells that can form from a hemocytoblast myeloid and lymphoid stem cells
what can the myeloid stem cell turn into granular leukocytes and monocytes
what is hemostasis complex series of reactions that stop bleeding after a blood vessel is injured
what are 3 functions of the lymphatic system helps maintain fluid balance of tissues; provides transport route for absorbed fat; helps defend against diseases
list the order in which lymph vessels collect fluid lymph capillaries => collecting vessels => trunks => ducts
where does the right lymphatic duct drain into rt. subclavian vein/jugular vein junction
what drives the flow of lymph in lymph vessels skeletal muscle movement; smooth muscle movement in wals of trunks and ducts; lymph vessels bundled with blood vessels by CT uses pulsation of blood vessels
which type of lymphocyte mediates a humoral response and which mediates a cellular immune response B lymphocyte => humoral (antibodies) ; T lymphocyte => cellular immune response
what are 3 types of T cells helper, killer, memory
what is the predominant type of tissue in lymph organs loose reticular CT except for the thymus
what are the 4 sets of tonsils lingual, palatine, pharyngeal, tubal
what are the major functions of the spleen site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance; removes debris, pathogens from lymph and blood; extracts aged RBCs and platelets; mediates iron recycling; site of fetal erythrocyte production; stores platelets
what is the function of the thymus site of maturation of T lymphocytes
Created by: coolnuh