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Bone Structure

Defining specific structure of a bone.

QuestionAnswer
Composition of Bone 30% Protein, 45% Minerals, 25% Water
Long Bones Weight-bearing part of the skeleton (arms & legs).
Short Bones Blocky structure and allow for a greater range of motion (carpals & tarsals).
Flat Bones Shield soft tissues (Skull, sternum, scapulae, & pelvic bones).
Irregular Bones Variet of shpes and sizes suited for attachment to muscles, tendons, and ligaments (mandible & vertebrae).
Haversian Systems (osteons) Structural units,lacunae, of compact bone arranged in concentric circles.
Lacunae Structural unit of compact bone.
Vaokmann's Canals Perpendicular system of canals that penetrate and cross between the Haversian system.
Epiphyses Bulbous ends of each long bone made up of spongy bone.
Cancellous Bone Spongy bone.
Diaphysis Shaft of a bone.
Medullary Cavity Center of bone which contains blood cell-producing marrow.
Periosteum Covers the outer bone to provide nutrients and oxygen, remove waste, and connect with ligaments and tendons.
Five key functions of the skeletal system? Protection, Movement, Support, Mineral Storage, and Blood Cell Formation.
Where is blood formed? Within the red marrow inside the ends of long bones as well as within the vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and cranial bones.
Hemopoiesis (Hematopoiesis) Formation of blood cells.
Endochondral (Intracartilaginous Ossification) Process where mineral salts (calcium and phosphorus) calcify along the scaffolding of cartilage formed in the developing fetus.
Osteoblasts Cells that are responsible for bone formation. Produce layers of mature bone cells called osteocytes.
Osteoclasts Cells that function in the developing fetus to absorb cartilage as ossification occurs and function in adult bone to break down and remove spend bone tissue.
Ossification Process by which softer tissues harden into bone.
Calcitonin Regulates metabloism of calcium.
Intramembranous Ossification Occurs not along cartilage but instead along a template of membrane, as the name implies; primarily in compact flat bones of the skull that don't have Haversian systems.Osteoblasts attach to the membrane through the blood supply.
Fontanels Six soft spots on the skull to help mold the skull during child birth.
Sharpey's Fibers Penetrating matrix of connective tissue that connects the periosteum to the bone.
Endosteum Lining of the medullary cavity.
Process A broad designation for any prominence or prolongation.
Spine An abrupt or pointed projection.
Trochanter A large, usually blunt process.
Tubercle A smaller, rounded eminence.
Crest A prominent ridge.
Head A large, rounded articular end of a bone; often set off from the shaft by a neck.
Condyle An oval articular prominence of a bone.
Facet A smooth, flat or nearly flat articulating surface.
Fossa A deeper depression.
Sulcus A groove.
Foramen A hole.
Meatus A canal or opening to a canal.
Fibrous Joint (Synarthrosis) Fibrous tissue rigidly joins the bone in a form of articulation called synarthrosis. Resulting in no movement at all. (The sutures of the skull)
Cartilaginous Joint Contains two forms of joints. Synchondrosis and Symphysis.
Synchondrosis Joint Articulation involving rigid cartilage that allows no movement. (Example: ribs, costal cartilage, and sternum)
Symphysis Joint Joint where cartilage fuses bones in such a way that pressure can cause slight movement, amphiarthrosis. (Examples: Invertebral discs and the symphysis pubis)
Synovial Joint Freely moving joint involving a synovial cavity which has articular fluid secreted from the synovial membrane to lubricate. Membrane is covered by fibrous joint capsule layer continuous with the periosteum of the bone.
Synarthrosis No movement at all.
Amphiarthrosis Pressure can cause slight movement.
Diarthrosis Freely moving.
Bursae Fluid-filled sacs to reduce friction between tendons and bones.
Bursitis Inflammation in the bursae sacs.
Gliding (Types of Synovial Joint) Curved or flat surfaces slide against one another. (Example: Carpal bones)
Hinge (Types of Synovial Joint) Convex surface joints with a concave surface, allowing right-angle motions in one plane. (Example: Elbows, knees, and joints between the finger bones.)
Pivot or Rotary (Types of Synovial Joint) One bone pivots or rotates around a stationary bone. (Example: Atlas rotating around the odontoid.)
Condyloid The oval head of one bone fits into a shallow depression in another, allowing the joint to move in two directions. (Example: Carpal-metacarpal joint at the wrist.)
Saddle Each of the adjoining bones is shaped like a saddle (the technical term is reciprocally concavo-convex), allowing various movements. (Example: Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb)
Ball-and-Socket The round head of one bone fits into a cup-like cavity in the other bone, allowing movement in many directions.(Example: Shoulder joint between the humerus and scapula)
Flexion (Type of Joint Movement) Decrease the angle between two bones.
Extension (Type of Joint Movement) Increase the angle between two bones.
Abduction (Type of Joint Movement) Movement away from the midline of the body.
Adduction (Type of Joint Movement) Movement toward the midline of the body.
Rotation (Type of Joint Movement) Turning around an axis.
Pronation (Type of Joint Movement) Downward or palm downward.
Supination (Type of Joint Movement) Upward or palm upward.
Eversion (Type of Joint Movement) Turning of the sole of the foot outward.
Inversion (Type of Joint Movement) Turning of the sole of the foot inward.
Circumduction (Type of Joint Movement) The forming of a cone with the arm.
Structure of the humerus that articulates with the head of the radius? Capitulum
Structure of the scapula that articulates with the clavicle? Acromion Process
Point of attachment for the biceps muscle on the radius? Radial Tuberosity
Patella is what kind of bone? Sesamoid
Created by: meliz003