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electrons= # of protons
atomic #= # of protons in nucleus of atom
atomic number also equals the number of electrons in each atom
mass number= protons and neutrons
different atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes
what isotopes are unstable because their nuclei decay to form a simpler and thus more stable configuration radioactive isotopes
what isotopes are used to study both the structure and fuction of particular tissues radioactive isotopes
atoms of molecule held together by forces of attraction are called chemical bonds
cations are pos. charged and they're electron donors
anions neg. charged and accept electrons
ionic compounds exist as solids but some may dissociate into pos. and neg ions in solution. such a compound is called an electrolyte
_____ ______ are formed by the atoms of molecules sharing one, two, or three pairs of their valence electrons covalent bonds
strongest of bonds and most common covalent
nonpolar covalent bonds, atoms are shared ____ equally.
______ share electrons to form _____ ______ atoms; covalent bonds
polar covalent bonds share electrons unequally
aprox. 5% as stong as covalent bonds hydrogen bonds
________ _______ are useful in estab. links between molecules or between distant parts of a very large molecule. such as large proteins hydrogen bonds
what are often held together by a large number of hydrogen bonds large 3-D molecules
hydrogen bonds are weak intermolecular bonds; serve as links between molecules
hydrogen bonds give water cohesion which creates high surface tension
new bonds form and old bonds are broken chemical reactions
total mass of reactants equals total mass of products law of conservation of mass
enegry associated with matter in motion kinetic enegry
enegry stored by matter due to its position potential enegry
bond being broken has more enegry than the one foremd so that extra enegry is released, usually as heat exergonic (release more enegry than can absorb)
requires that enegry be added, usually from a molecule of ATP to form a bond endergonic
exp. of exergonic reactions catabolism of food molecules; glucose
exp. of endergonic reaction bonding amino acid molecules together to form proteins
____, ____ & ______ are continuously moving and colliding in activiation enegry atoms, ions and molecules
collision enegry needed to break bonds and begin reaction activiation enegry
activiation engry increases what concentration and temp. and increases probablity of collison
chemical compounds that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activiation enegry needed for reaction to occur catalysts
a catalyst lowers ____ of ____ needed to get the reaction started amount of enegry
lactose reacts ___ with water to break down into two simple sugars; ____ and _____ slow; glucose and galactose
lactase is an enzyme catalyst
lactase orients the _____ ____ (lactose and water) properly so that they touch at the spots that make reaction happen colliding particles
_____ compounds usually lack carbon and are simple molecules inorganic
_____ comp. usually contain c & h, usally O and always have ____ _____ organic; covalent bonds
what enables reactants to collide to form products water
_____ breaks large molecules down into simpler ones by ADDING a molecule of water hydrolysis
____ _____ occurs when two simple molecules join together, elimination a molecule of water in process dehydration synthesis
in a solution, the _____ dissolves the _____ solvent; solute
sub. which contain polar covalent bonds and dissolve in water are hyrophillic
nonpolar covalent bonds are hydrophobic
waters role as solvent makes it essential for health and survival
exp of hydrophobic animal fats and oil
exp. of hydrophillic sugar and salt
water can absorb or release large amt of heat with only a modest change in its own temp. due to large number of hydrogen ions in water
amount of heat needed to change from liquid to gas heat of vaporization
____ _____ link neighboring water molecules giving water cohesion; this creates ______ hydrogen bonds; high surface tension
difficult of break the surface of liquid if molecules are more attracted to each other than to surrounding air molecules high surface tension
_____ provide most of the enegry needed for life carbohydrates
carbo. included. name 4 sugars, starches, glycogen and cellulose
carbs can function as food reserves
carbs are divided into 3 main grounds monosaccharides, poysaccharides and disaccharides
carbs are a source of what? enegry for ATP formation
glycogen is stored liver and muscle tissue
only what can produce starches or cellulose for enegry storage plants
contain three to seven atons and include glucose, a hexose that is the main enegry supplying compound of body monosaccharides
humans can absorb only 3 simple sugars without further digestion 1. glucose (honey)2. fructose (fruit)3. galactose (dairy products)
are formed from two monosaccharies by dehydration synthesis disaccharides
disacchrides can be split back into simple sugars by hydrolysis
combining two monosaccharies by dehydration synthesis realese a water molecule. 3 examples - sucrose= gluctose & fructose- maltose= gluctose & gluctoselactose= glucose & galatose
are largest of carbs. and may contain hundreds of monosaccharies polysaccharies
principle of polysaccharie in the human body is ____, which is stored in _____ or _____ glycogen; liver or skeletal muscles
____ contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxy, but unlike carbs they do not have 2:1 ration of hydrogen to oxygen lipids
lipids are hydro_____ hydrophobic
lipids are _____ in polar solvents such as water insoluable
lipids combine with _____ for transport in blood protein
__________ are most plentiful lipids in the body triglycerides
triglycerides prodive ____, ______ and _____ protection, insulation & enegry
______ provide more than twice as much enegry pergram as either carbs or proteins (more efficient) triglycerides
storage is unlimited in triglycerides
excess dietary carbs, proteins, fats and oils will be deposited in _____ tissue as _____ adipose; triglycerides
neutral fats composed of single __-____ glycerol molecules and ___ fatty acide molecules 3- carbon; 3 fatty acid tails
fatty acids are attached by dehydration synthsis
these fats contain single covalent bonds and are covered with hydrogen atoms saturated
exp of saturated fat lard
fats are not completely covered with hydrogen monounsaturated
exp of monounsaturated safflower oil, corn oil
fats contain even less hydrogen atoms polyunsaturated
exp of polyunsaturated olive or peanut oil
when talking about phospholipids what does it mean when you say there amphipathic both polar (head) and nonpolar(tail) regions
polar head of phospholipids are made of up a phosphate group and glycerol molecule
what have four rings of carbon atoms steroids
eicosanoids include prostaglandins and leukotrienes
lipid type derived from a fatty acid called arachidonic acid eicosanoids
proteins are constructed from combos of 20 amino acids
dipeptides formed from ____ amino acids joined by _____ _____ called _____ bond 2; covanlent bond; peptide
_______ of a protein by a hostile enviornment causes loss of its characteristic shape and function denaturation
dipeptides are an example of _____ synthesis dyhydration (it removes water)
is a unique sequence of amino acids primary
is alpha helix or pleated sheet folding secondary
is 3-dimensional shape of ploypeptide chain tertiary
is relationship of multiple polypeptide chains quaternary
fluid mosaic model is ___% lipid and _____% protein- held together by ______ _____ 50/50; hydrogen bonds
how many lipid molecules for each protein molecule 50
basic framework of the plasma membrane and is made up of 3 lipid molecules lipid bilayer
3 lipid molecules phospholipids, cholestrol, and glycolipids
______ molecules are interspersed among other lipids to help stablize the membrane cholestrol
______ appear only in the membrane layer which faces the extracelluar fluid glycolipids
phospholipids comprises _____% of lipids 75
phospholipid bilayer has 2 paralell layers of molecules
on the phospholipid bilayer the polar heads are _____ and face on both surfaces of a ______ _______ hydrophilic; watery enviroment
carbohydrate groupds form a polar head only on side of what membrane facing extracelluar fluid
membrane proteins divided into two: intergral and peripheral proteins
____ protiens extend into or across the entire lipid bilayer among the fatty acid tails of phospholipid molecules integral
______ proteins are found at inner or outer surface of the membrand and can be stripped away from the membrane without disturbing membrane integrity peripheral proteins
those that stretch across the entrie bilayer and prject on both sides of the membrane are termed transmembrane proteins
passageway to allow specific sub. to pass though formation of channel
bind specific sub., change shape and move it across membrane transporter proteins
cellular recognition site- bind to sub. receptor proteins
what serves to stablize the membrane and reduce membrane fluidity cholestrol
lipid bilayer portion of mem. is permeable to what small, nonpolar, uncharged molecules
lipid bilayer of membran is impermeable to ions and charged or polar molecules
act as channels or transporters increase the permeablity of the membrane to molecules that cannot cross lipid bilayer transmembrane proteins
____ are unable to pass through the membrane except by vesicular transport macromolecules
____ and ____ ions are more concetrated on outside of membrane with ____ and ____ ions more concentrated inside oxy and sodium outside; carbon dioxide and potassium on inside
inner surface is ____ charged; outer is _____ charged. this sets up what? neg; post. electrical gradiant
3 types of passive process are: 1. diffusion though lipid bilayer2. diff. though ion channels3. faciliated diffusion
____ ____ moves material with help of transporter protein mediated transport
____ _____ does not use trasnporter protein nomediated trasnport
____ ____ uses ATP to drive sub. against their concentration gradient active transport
____ ____ moves sub. down their concentraion gradiant passive transport
____ ____ moves material across membranes in small vesicules- either by exo or endocytosis vesicular transport
random misxing of particles that occurs in a solution as result of kinetic enegry of particles diffusion
most membrane channels are ___ channels, allowing small, inorganic ions which are hydrophilic ion channels
net movement of a solvent through selectibely permeable membrane or living systems, the movemnt of water from area of high concentration to lower con. in membrane osmosis
_____ _____ penetrate the membrane by diffusion through the lipid bilayer or through aquaporins water molecules
trasmembrane proteins that function as water channels aquaporins
measure of soultions ablity to change volum. of cells by altering their water concentration tonicity
con. solute is equal in and out. no net movent isotonic; rbc maintain normalshape
much lower concen. inside cell compared to outside; direction of flow=in hypotonic; rbc undergo hemolysis
extraccelluar solution shrink/ shrivel hypertonic; rbc undergo cremation
sol. binds to specific transporter on one side of membrane and is released on the other side after the transporter undergoes a conformational change: high to low con & faster facilitated diffusion
solutes that move across membrane by fac. diffucsion include ____, ____, ____, _____ and ____ glucose, urea, fructose, galatose, and vitimans
___ Enters cell by facilitaed diffusion; then binds to glucose; transport protein
combined concentration and electrical gradients= electrochemical gradient
endocytosis bringing something in cell
phagocytosis= cell eating by macrophages and WBC
Created by: Mollie28



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