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MC Bio 204 ch 1

basic concepts of anatomy

the 11 systems of the human body integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive
integumentary system C/skin and structures derived from it: hair, nails, sweat glands, and oil glands || F/protects body, helps regulate body temp, helps make vitamin D, detects sensations
skeletal system C/bones and joints and their associated cartilages || F/supports and protects body; provides surface area for muscle attachments; houses cells that produce blood cells; stores minerals and lipids
muscular system C/muscles composed of skeletal muscle tissue || F/produces body movements; stabilizes body position; generates heat
nervous system C/brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs, such as the eye and ear || F/generates action potentials to regulate body activities; detects environmental changes; responds to changes with muscular contractions or glandular secretions
endocrine system C/hormone-producing glands and hormone-producing cells in several other organs || F/regulates body activities by releasing hormones, which are chemical messengers transported in blood from an endocrine gland to a target organ
cardiovascular system C/blood, heart, blood vessels || F/blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and CO2 and wastes away from cells; blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels
lymphatic system and immunity C/lymphatic fluid and vessels; also includes spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils || F/returns proteins and fluid to blood; carries lipids from GIT to blood; incubates lymphocytes, which protect against disease-causing organisms
respiratory system C/lungs and air passageways such as the pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), and bronchial tubes leading into and out of them || F/transferring O2 and CO2 in and out of lungs; regulating acid-base balance of body fluids
digestive system organs of the GIT, including mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large int, anus; also includes accessory organs, inc. salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas || F/breakdown of food; absorption of nutrients; elimination of solid wastes
urinary system C/kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra || F/production, storage, and elimination of urine; eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood; helps regulate production of red blood cells
reproductive system C/gonads (testes, ovaries), uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, epididymis, ductus deferens, penis || F/production, transport, and storage of gametes; production of hormones that regulate reproduction
interstitial fluid a type of extracellular fluid; the fluid that fills the narrow spaces between cells in tissues
synovial fluid the extracellular fluid in joints
cranial referring to the skull
facial referring to the face
frontal referring to the forehead
orbital referring to the eye
otic referring to the ear
buccal referring to the cheek
nasal referring to the nose
oral referring to the mouth
mental referring to the chin
sternal referring to the breastbone
mammary referring to the breast
umbilical referring to the naval
coxal referring to the hip
inguinal referring to the groin
manual referring to the hand
pubic referring to the pubis
dorsum the top of the foot or the back of the hand
axillary referring to the armpit
brachial referring to the arm
antecubital referring to the front of the elbow
antebrachial referring to the forearm
carpal referring to the wrist
digital or phalangeal referring to the fingers or toes
femoral referring to the thigh
patellar referring to the knee
crural referring to the leg (shin)
tarsal referring to the ankle
pedal referring to the foot
occipital referring to the base of the skull
acromial referring to the shoulder
scapular referring to the shoulder blade
vertebral referring to the spinal column
dorsal referring to the back
olecranal referring to the back of the elbow
sacral referring to the posterior region between the hips
lumbar referring to the loin (lower back)
gluteal referring to the buttocks
popliteal referring to the hollow behind the knee
sural referring to the calf
plantar referring to the sole of the foot
calcaneal referring to the heel
organs of the left upper quadrant of the abdomen spleen, stomach, jejunum and proximal ileum, pancreas: body and tail, left kidney, left suprarenal gland, left colic (splenic) flexure, transverse colon: left half, descending colon: superior half
organs of the right upper quadrant of the abdomen liver, gallbladder, stomach: pylorus, doudenum: part 1-3, pancreas: head, right suprarenal gland, right kidney, right colic (hepatic) flexure, ascending colon: superior part, transverse colon: right half
organs of the left lower quadrant of the abdomen beginning of sigmoid colon, descending colon, rectum
organs of the right lower quadrant of the abdomen cecum, vermiform appendix, most of ileum, ascending colon: inferior part
Created by: dglenn34



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