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Chapte 4

Anabolism Larger molecules and made from smaller ones. Requires energy. Provides materials needed for cellular growth and repair.
Dehydration Synthesis Builds up by removing water. Used to make polysaccharides, triglycerides and proteins. Produces water.
Catabolism Breaks down larger molecules into smaller molecules. Releases energy.
Hydrolysis Water is used to split substances. Used to decompose carbs, lipids, and proteins.
Enzymes Speeds up chemical reactions. Globular proteins with specific shapes. Not consumed in reactions. Substrate specific.
Metabolic pathways series of enzyme-controlled reactions leading to a formation of product.Each new substrate is product of previous reaction. Enzyme names reflect substrate and end is ase.
Cofactor Helps active site attain its appropriate shape or helps bind the enzyme to its substate.
Coenzyme Organic molecule composed of vitamin molecules and act as a cofactor.
Regulation of metabolic pathways Limited #. Negative feedback. product slows down its own production.
ATP Molecules A molecule that carries energy in a form that the cell can use. Consists of Adenine,ribose, and 3 phosphates in a chain. Powers cellular work, skeletal muscle contractions, active transport and secretion. Creates water and stores energy.
Phosphorylation When ADP uses energy released from cellular respiration to reattach a phosphate to beome ATP again.
Oxidation When cells burn glucose molecules
Cellular Respiration Produces CO2, H2O, ATP and heat.
Glycoysis Series of 10 reactions. Breaks down glucose into 2 pyruvic acid molecules. Anaerobic phase. Yields 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule.
Anaerobic Reaction Oxygen is not available. Electron transport system can't accept new electrons from NADH. Pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. Glycolysis is inhibited
Aerobic Reaction Oxygen is available. Citric acid cycle begins. Electron transport system functions. CO2 and H2O are formed. 34 molecules of ATP are produced per each glucose molecule.
Electron Transport System ATP is produced and water is formed.
Carbohydrate Storage Carb molecules from food can enter catabolic pathways for energy production. Anabolic pathways for storage. Excess glucose stored as glycogen,(liver and muscle cells) fat and converted to amino acids.
Genetic information Instructs cells how to contruct proteins; stored in DNA
Gene segment of DNA that codes for one protein
Genome complete set of genes
Genetic code method used to translate a sequence of nucleotides of DNA into a sequence of amino acids. Each amino acid is represented by a triplet code.
Structure of DNA Two polynucleotide chains that hydrogen bonds hold together and form a double helix. Bases pair specifically. (A-T, C-G) Outer edge is alternating phosphate and suger.
DNA replication Hydrogen bonds break between bases. Double strands pull apart. New nucleotides pair with exposed bases.
RNA Single stranded. Has a U in code instead of T.
Transcription Process of coping DNA information into an RNA sequence.
Translation The translation of RNA into amino acids
Created by: merobbins