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The Back Muscles

Origin, Insertion, Function, and Innervation

Name of MuscleOriginInsertionFunctionInnervation
Trapezius Occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, spines of C7 and T1-T12 Clavicle, acromion and superior spine of scapula Both elevates (upper fibers) and depresses (lower fibers) shoulder; retracts scapula; also extends head Accessory n.
Latissimus Dorsi Spines of T6-T12, lumbar vertebrae, saccral crest, iliac crest, lower 3 or 4 ribs. Intertubercular groove of humerus Adducts, extends, and medially rotates arm Thoracodorsal n.
Rhomboideus Major Spinous processes of T2-T5. Vertebral border the scapular inferior to the spine. Elevates and adducts scapula Dorsal Scapular n.
Rhomboideus Minor Spinous processes of C7 and T1. Vertebral border of the scapula superior to the spine. Elevates and adducts scapula Dorsal Scapular n.
Thoracolumbar Fascia covers deep muscles of back; attached medially to spines of vertebrae; inferiorly to ilium; provides for muscle attachments. not listed not listed not listed
Levator Scapula Vertebrae - transverse processes of C1-C4 Scapula - superior angle and medial border Elevates and adducts scapula Dorsal Scapular n.
Splenius Capitis Lower portion of ligamentum nuchae and spinous processes of C7 and T1-T4. Mastoid process of temporal bone and occipital bone. Extend neck and head Dorsal rami of spinal nerves
Semispinalis capitis thorasic and cervical vertebrae occipital bone occipital bone extends head dorsal rami
Erector spinae-iliocostalis from Ilium and ribs Spinous processes six levels above Extend trunk and vertebral column Dorsal Rami
Erector Spinae-Longissimus from transverse processes of vertebrae to transverse processes of vertebrae Extend trunk and vertebral column Dorsal Rami
Erector Spinae-Spinalis from spinous processes to spinous processes Extend trunk and vertebral column Dorsal Rami
Created by: LKRitchey