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A & P MOD 2.2

Biochemistry and Microbiology

All organisms are made of small enclosed bodies called cells and of the products of those cells.
Cells are small bits of organized protoplasm encased in a thickened membrane.
Multicellular organisms cells tend to have a specialized function that contributes to the overall functioning of the organism.
Protoplasm the complex mass of proteins and other organic and inorganic materials that is capable of exhibiting the characteristics of life.
functions of the compounds found in protoplasm water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids, mineral salts.
Water Serves as the solvent in all cell chemistry. Water not only makes up most of the body, but it is also involved in virtually very chemical reaction that takes place in the body. About 65% of the water in the body is contained within cells. However, the wa
Protein Forms the structural framework of protoplasm.
Carbohydrates Serve as a source of protoplasm.
Fats Store excess energy. The energy provided by nutrients that is not required by the body immediately is converted to fat and stored between the skin and muscles.
Nucleic acids Control the growth and reproduction of cells.
Mineral salts serve as chemical buffers to maintain the chemical balance in cells. Salts serve as a source of trace elements and are needed in the cells in small quantities. For example, the formation of ATP requires that phosphate molecules be available in the cell.
Principle types of protoplasm nucleoplasm and cytoplasm.
Nuceoplasm the protoplasm found in the nucleus of a cell. All human cells except mature red blood cells have a nucleus.
Cytoplasm the protoplasm fond outside the nucleus of a cell. Also provides structure to the cell and supports other parts of the cell.
Major parts of a cell Nucleus, cell membrane, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, golgi apparatus, mitochondrion, lysosome, centrosome.
Cells Contain specialized structures that perform specific functions in maintaining the cell as a living body. The exact structures and their arrangements will vary from cell to cell depending on the type of parent organism, the cells role within the parent or
Nucleus Regulates cellular structure and activities, including reproduction of the cell.
Cell membrane Allows some molecules to enter the cell while preventing entry by other molecules. The cell membrane is also referred to as the plasma membrane. the membrane exhibits selective permeability it selects the chemicals that are allowed to pass through it, pe
Permeability The characteristics of a material to allow other substances to pass through it. An important function of a cell is to take in substances such as carbon dioxides and enzymes. However, the membrane must prevent substances such as toxins from entering the c
Endoplasmic reticulum Provides a passageway for the transport of materials within the cell and synthesizes lipids.
The endoplasmic reticulum winds through the cytoplasm, delivering proteins and other chemicals to various parts of the cell and to other organelles. There are two types of endoplasmic reticula: smooth and rough. The bumpy appearance of rough is created by
Ribosome Synthesizes protein. Ribosomes are attached to endoplasmic reticula and are scattered throughout the cell. The ribosomes contain RNA and play a key role in cell division.
Golgi apparatus Synthesizes carbohydrates and packages materials to prepare them for secretion from the cell. Generally lie near the terminal ends of endoplasmic reticula and receive proteins produces by the endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes. This material is delivered
Mitochondrion Produces ATP and serves as the site of cell respiration. generate the energy required by the cell. Consist of a smooth outer sac that contains an inner sac partitioned by the numerous folds, called cristae. they are rich in fats, proteins, and enzymes. t
Lysosome Contains the enzymes used to digest ingested material and damaged tissue.
Centrosome Organizes special spindle fibers during cell division. Consist of two cylinders called centrioles.
Major parts of the cell nucleus nuclear membrane, chromosome, and nucleus.
Nuclear Membrane a thickening of the outer surface of the nucleus protoplasm that regulates the movement of materials into and out of the nucleus.
Chromosome one of several strands of DNA that contains the genetic code that determines inherited traits.
Human cells contain 23 pairs of chomosomes that carry the genetic code. when a cell is dividing to reproduce itself, the DNA molecules form tight coils so that they have the appearance of short rods. This is the chromosomal state. When the cells are not d
Nucleolus A dense spherical structure within the nucleus that is involved in protein synthesis and that forms ribosomal RNA.
Specialized structures in cells Microvilli, flagellum, cilia.
Microvilli Extensions of the cell cytoplasm that line the intestines. Serve to increase the surface area of cells.
The purpose of the intestins is to absorb nutrients. the reason that the small intestines twist around and fold back on themselves is to increase their length so that food being digested and absorbed will have to travel a greater distance, thus increasing
Flagellum a single hair like projection on a sperm cell. Helps to propel a sperm cell so that it can reach an ovum.
The sperm or spermatozoa is the male reproductive cell, while the ovum is the female reproductive cell. When an ovum is released for fertilization in the female, it is still beyond the point where sperm is deposited. This means that the sperm must "swim"
Cilia hair like projections of the cells that form the mucous lining of the respirator system and other passageways. Helps to propel fluid in one direction over the surface of cells.
The cilia act like the bristles of a broom on a microscopic scale. Their sweeping motion moves fluids and transported substances along a passageway. For example, when the ovaries releases an egg cell, cilia extending from the cells that line the interior
The functions of a cell 1. to absorb materials to support cell functions, 2. to metabolize nutrients, 3. to metabolize oxygen, 4. to release energy, 5. to synthesize protein, 6. to excrete waste products, 7. to reproduce itself, 8. to support functions specific to that kind of
the body contains hundreds of types of cells that serve specialized functions to support the purposes of the organ system in which the cells origionate.
Transport the movement of substances in and out of the cells. depending of the type of cell, the substance and the purpose of the movement. the method of transport can be generally divided into two categories: passive and active.
Passive transport The movement of substances in and out of the cells. chemicals move through the cell wall due to the mechanics of solutions. The word passive means that an action takes place without resistance to outside forces.
Active transport Movement that requires the use of energy for the cell to transport the material through the cell wall. goes counter to the normal mechanics of solution. The solvent flows from the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration, causing t
Diffusion The process by which particles in a fluid spread throughout the fluid to produce and equal concentration.
Exposure to certain conditions can disrupt the genetic makeup of a cell resulting in mutation.
A mutation may lead to structural or functional disorders that are then passed on to daughter cells during mitosis.
Mutation causing conditions: exposure to chemicals, exposure to energy sources, infections by other organisms.
Exposure to chemicals like inhaling tar from smoking cigarettes.
Exposure to energy sources radioactive materials like the ultraviolet light of the sun can cause skin cancer.
Infections by other organisms viruses that disrupt cell reproduction.
Glycosis uses enzymes in the cytoplasm, does not require oxygen, requires two molecules of ATP to start this reaction, Converts glucose and two ATP molecules, hydrogen, and energy, requires the vitamin niacin, maybdevelope into aerobic oxidation once oxygen is av
Aerobic oxidation Uses enzymes located in the mitochondria, requires oxygen, converts pyruvic acid into one ATP molecule, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon molecules, requires the vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, may continue through additional cycles as carb
Electron transport system uses proteins located in the mitochondria, allows the electrons released by hydrogen atoms to react with cytochromes to generate enough energy to produce 34 ATP molecules from each glucose molecule, combines hydrogen and oxygen released from other forms
Created by: llc1980



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