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Cell Section

Chapter 3

Cell Membrane Composed of phospholipid bilayer,and proteins, receptors, pores, channels, and carriers, enzymes, CAMS, and self-markers.
Cytoplasm Contains Cytosol and organelles
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Ribbon candied shape closest to nuclear envelope. Provides a tubular transport system for molecules. Participates in the synthesis of protein and lipids.
Ribosomes Produce protein. Composed of protein and RNA
Golgi Apparatus Modifies, packages, and delivers proteins.
Vesicles Membranous sacs that store substances.
Mitochondira Generate energy from food molecules.
Lysosomes Sacs containing enzymes capable of digesting worn cellular parts.
Peroxisomes Contain enzymes called perosidases, important in the breakdown of many organic molecules.
Centrosomes Helps distribute chromosomes to new cells during cell division, initiates formation of cilia.
Microfilaments and Microtubules Support cytoplasm, help move substances and organelles within the cytoplasm.
Nuclear envelope Double membrane controls passage of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm.
Nucleolus Composed of protein and RNA. Site of ribosome formation.
Chromatin Fibers composed of protein and DNA. Carries info for synthesizing proteins
Simple Diffusion Moving from hign concentration to low concentration.
Facilitated Diffusion Movement across a membrane with the help of channel or carrier molecule.
Osmosis Movement of water from high concentration to low. Water moves toward a higher concentration of solutes.
Filtration Smaller molecules are forced through porous membranes. Hydrostatic pressure.
Osmosis Pressure Ability of osmosis to generate enough pressure to move volume of water. Pressure increases as concentration of nonpermeable solutes increases.
Isotonic Equal pressure.
Hypertonic Higher osmotic pressure than surrounding body fluids. Water leaves cell.
Hypotonic Lower osmotic pressure than surrounding body fluids. Water enters cell.
Active Transport Carrier molecules transport substances across membrane from low to high concentrations. Sodium ions, potassium ions
Sodium-Potassium Pump Creates balance by pumping 3 sodium out and 2 potassium into cell. Requires energy and makes energy.
Endocytosis When a molecule that is too big to pass through a membrane enters by a vesicle.
Pinocytosis Membrane engulfs liquid
Phagocytosis Membrane engulfs solid
Receptor-mediated Receptor protein molecules that bring in specific types of particles.
Exocytosis Vesicles form around waste and fuse with membrane to release contents outside cell.
Interphase Growth period of cell.G phase grows and synthesises things other than DNA. S Phase cell replicates DNA.
Mitosis Produces 2 daughters cells from one mother cell.
Prophase Chromosomes form, envelope disappears.
Metaphase Chromosomes align midway between centrioles.
Anaphase Chromosomes separate and move to opposite centrioles.
Telophase Chromatin and nuclear enevelope forms.
Apoptosis cell death
Stem cells Can divide to form 2 new stem cells.Or 1 stem cell and 1 progenitor cell.
Totipotent Stem cell that can become every cell type.
Pluripotent Restricted # of cells
Progenitor cells committed to certain functions. Can divide to become any # of restricted cells.
Created by: merobbins