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Chapter 6 muscle

Note cards

Occipitofrontalis Raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids and causes crows feet
Orbicularis oris puckers the lips
Buccinator Flattens the cheeks
Zygomaticus smiling muscle
Levator labii superioris sneering
Depressor anguli oris frowning
Mastication chewing
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, masseter
Intrinsic tongue muscles change the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic tongue muscle move the tongue
Sternocleidomastoid Lateral neck muscle and prime mover. Rotates and abducts the head
Platysma Sheet like muscle that covers the anterolateral neck, pull corners of mouth inferior
Erector spine group of muscles on each side of the back, Responsible for keeping the back straight
Thoracic muscles Muscles that move that move the thorax
External intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
Internal intercostals Contract during forced expiration
Diaphragm accomplishes quite breathing (dome shaped muscle)
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus anterior Pulls scapula anteriorly
Pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
Latissimus Major Medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm
Deltoid Attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, it is the major abductor of the upper limb
Triceps brachii Extends the forearm. Occupies the posterior compartment of the arm
Biceps brachii Flexes the forearm, Occupies the anterior compartment of the arm
Brachialis flexes the forearm
Brachioradialis flexes and supinates the forearm
Rentinaculum Strong band to fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist
Flexor Carpi flexes the wrist
Extensor carpi extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
Extensor digitorum extends the fingers
19 hand muscles called the intrinsic hand muscles located within the hand
Gluteus Maximus Buttocks
Gluteus Medius hip muslce
Sartorius Flexes the thighs
Hamstring Posterior thigh muscle and extends the thigh
Contractility The ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
Excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
Extensibility the ability to be stretched
Elasticity Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have ben stretched
Fibers Single muscle cells
Actin myofilaments thin myofilaments
Myosin myofilaments Thick myofilaments
Motor Neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
Motor unit A single motor neuron
Muscle twitch is a contraction of an entire muscle in a response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
Tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
oxygen debt the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted
Muscle Fatigue results then ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
Isometric the length of muscle does not change but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
Isotonic The amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction
Muscle Tone Refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time( Keeps head up and back straight)
Fast twitch fibers Contract quickly and fatigue quickly
Slow twitch Fibers Contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
The origin Is the head and is the most stationary end of the muscle
The insertion Is the end of the muscle between the origin and the insertion is the belly
Synergists Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
Antagonists Muscles that work in opposition to one another
Prime mover Among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement
z-line Are the thin squiggly lines
M- line (myosin) Goes from I band to I band
H-zone The space in between the A band
Perimysium Muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi, which are surrounded by loose connective tissue
Endomysium Each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called
Sarcomeres is the basic structural and functional unit of the muscle
Neuromuscular junction Axons enter the muscles and branch. Each branch that connects to the muscle forms
Presynaptic terminal The enlarged nerve terminal
Synaptic cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
Synaptic vesicles Each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles
Muscle twitch is a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus reaches a level called threshold at which point the muscle fiber will contract maximally
Lag Phase The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
Contraction phase the pointof contraction
Relaxation Phase the time during which the muscle relaxes
Tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
Recruitment The increase in number of motor units being activated
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) needed for energy for muscle contraction
ATP is produced in the mitochondria
ATP Is short lived and unstable
Anaerobic respiration without oxygen
Aerobic respiration With oxygen
Created by: johnnycarroll
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