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Chapter 6 Muscles

Chewing Mastication
Move the tongue Extrinsic Tongue Muscles
Change the shape of the tongue Intrinsic Tongue Muscles
Occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oris puckering the lips
Buccinator flattens the cheek
Zygomaticus smiling muscle
Thoracic muscles muscles that move the thorax
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
Pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
Flexor carpi flexes the wrist
Extensor carpi extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
Extensor digitorum extends the fingers
Actin thin myofilaments
Myosin thick myofilaments
Sarcomeres are actin and myosin formed units
Extensibility the ability to be stretched
Excitability skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
Contractility skeletal muscle to shorten with force
Elasticity recoil back to resting length after being stretched
Fascia outside of epimysium
Epimysium connective tissue sheath surrounding skeletal muscle
Neuromuscular junction is also called synapse
Motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to muscle fibers
Acetylocholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine
Acetylochline neurotransmitter
Action potential brief reversal back of the charge
Resting membrane potential charge difference across the membrane
I band consists of actin
A band is darker region
H zone lighter region
Sarcomere extends from one Z line to another Z line
Muscle twitch contraction of entire muscle
Tetany muscle remains contracted without relaxing
Recruitment number of motor units being activated
Lag phase skip in time between application of stimulus to a motor neuron and beginning of a contraction
Threshold point when the muscle fiber will contract maximally
Contraction phase time of contraction
ATP needed for energy for muscle contraction
ATP is produced in the mitochondria
Isometric tension increase, length stays the same
Isotonic tension stays the same, length changes
Fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
Slow-twitch fibers contract more slowly and more resistant to fatigue
Anaerobic respiration without oxygen
Aerobic respiration with oxygen
Another high-energy molecule stored instead of ATP creatine phosphate
Origin most stationary end of the muscle
Insertion end of the muscle undergoing greatest movement
Belly portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
Prime mover one muscle that plays a major role in accomplishing desired movement
Antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
Synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
H zone is made of myosin
Muscle fatigue when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced
Oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
Quadratic femoris extends the leg
gluteus maximus buttocks
gluteus medius hip muscle
Muscle contraction occurs as actin and myosin slide past one another
When sarcomeres shorten so does the muscle
When H and I bands shorten the A bands don't change in length
All-or-none When the muscle fiber won't respond to stimulus until it reaches threshold
When you get successive twitches from successive amounts of stimuli then the muscle don't have time to fully relax
At the points of attachment the muscle is connected to the bone by a tendon
Example of fast-twitch fibers is the white meat of a chicken
Example of slow-twitch fibers is the dark meat of a duck
How many phosphates is ATP made up of 3
ATP is short-lived and unstable
ATP degenerates to a more stable ADP plus phosphate
Muscles help to produce heat essential for maintenance of normal body temperature
Sarcomeres are joined end to end to form myofibrils
Sarcomere is the basic structural and functional unit of the muscle
Created by: emilydillon
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