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Muscle System

The ability for a skeletal muscle to shorten with force Contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus Excitability
The ability to be stretched Extensibility
Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched Elasticity
Muscles produce ___________ essential for maintenance of normal body temperature. Heat
Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath call the... Epimysium
The other connective tissue located outside the epimysium is called the... Fascia
The fascia does what It surrounds and separates muscles
A muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called Fasciculi
Fasciculi are surrounded by loose connective tissue called Perimysium
The fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called Fibers
Each muscle fiber is a single cylindrical cell containing... Several nuclei
Each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called... Endomysium
The cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with... Myofibrils
What are myofibrils? They are a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other.
What 2 major kinds of protein fibers do Myofibrils consist of... Actin Myofilaments and Myosin Myofilaments
What are Actin Myofilaments? Thin Myofilaments. They resemble 2 minute (miniature) strands of pearls twisted together.
What are Myosin Myofilaments ? Thick Myofilaments. they resemble bundles of minute (miniature) golf clubs.
Actin and Myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called... Sarcomeres
How do sarcomeres form the myofibril? They are joined end to end
What is the sarcomere? It is the basic structural and functional unit of muscle.
Minute means Miniature
Epi- means Upon
When an action potential reaches the nerve terminal, it causes ________? Synaptic vesicles to release acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft by exocytosis.
Synaptic vesicles They store are neuron transmitters before releasing them into the synapse.
What does the acetylcholine do? It diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the receptor molecules in the muscle cell membrane.
What is another word for muscle cell membrane? Sarcolemma
The combination of acetylcholine with its receptor causes... An influx of sodium ions into the muscle fiber.
The influx initiates... An action potential in the muscle cell, which causes it to contract.
The acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzymes ... Acetylcholinesterase
The enzymatic breakdown ensures that one action potential in the neuron yields only one action potential in the... skeletal muscle, and only one contraction of the muscle cell.
Muscle Contraction Occurs as actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one anthoer causing the sarcomeres to shorten
When the sarcomeres shorten what happens It causes the muscle to shorten
Sliding filament mechanism The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during a contraction.
The H bands and I bands shorten... But the A bands do not change in length.
Muscle twitch Is a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers.
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called... Threshold
threshold is where the muscle fiber can will contract maximally.
The all-or-none response the end example of what happens in the threshold
Lag Phase the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
Contraction Phase The time of the contraction
Relaxation Phase The time the muscle relaxes
If successive stimuli are given, you successive twitches that occur so frequently ... The muscle doesn't have time to fully relax.
Tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
Recruitment The increase in the number of motor units being activated
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate
ADP Adenosine Diphosphate
What is needed for energy for muscle contraction ATP
Where is ATP produced The mitochondria
what is short lived and unstable ATP
ATP degenerates to the more stable ADP plus phosphate
It is neccessary for muscle cells to constantly produce ATP
They cannot stockpile ATP when resting
Creatine Phosphate is a high energy molecule that can be stored
During periods of inactivity as excess ATP is produced in the muscle cell, the energy contained is used to... Synthesize creatine phosphate
During periods of activity, the energy stored n the creatine phosphate can be... Acessed quickly and used to produce ATP
ATP can be used in Muscle contraction
Anaerobic respiration without oxygen
Aerobic respiration with oxygen (more efficient)
Oxygen debt the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted store of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells.
Muscle fatigue results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
2 types of muscle contractions Isometric and Isotonic
Isometric (equal distance) the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
Isotonic (equal tension) the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes
Muscle tone Refers to the constant tension produced by the muscles of the body for long periods of time. Keeps head up and back straight.
Fast-twitch fibers Contract quickly and fatigue quickly. well adapted to perform anaerobic metabolism
Example of fast-twitch fibers is White meat of a chicken's breast
Slow-twitch fibers Contract more slowly and more resistant to fatigue. they are better suited for aerobic metabolism
Example of slow-twitch fibers is Dark meat of a duck's breast or the legs of a chicken
Origin (head) is the most stationary end of the muscle
Insertion Is the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
Belly The portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
Some muscles have Multiple origins or head
Synergists Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
Antagonists Muscles that work in opposition of each other
Created by: pmmurra1
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