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Osteo Test 1

Definitions

QuestionAnswer
What are the 5 Functions of bone? Support tissue, Protection, Assist in Movement, Hemopoesis, Storage of salts
Classification of bones are based on morphology
What are the 5 Classifications of bone? Long, Short, Flat, Irrecgular, Sesamoid
Long bones typically endochondral formation like the FEMUR
Short bones tarsals, carpals
Flat bones ribs, skull vault
Irregular bones vertebrae and wormian sometimes
Sesamoid bones the only bone partially or totally enclosed by tendon, ie the patella
Define Bony Landmarks wherever tendons, ligaments or fascias attach or ateries lie adjacent to or enter bones.
Process any marked bony prominence
Spine a sharp, slender projection
Line a little ridge on the surface of the femur
Crest more pronounced than a line
Foramen hole through a bone
Fossa shallow depression on the surface of a bone
Fissure a narrow slit like opening in a bone
Fovea “little pit”, small pit like depression
Canal aka Meatus an opening through a bone with length to it
Tubercle small knuckle like process which serves as an attachment point
Tuberosity larger than a tubercle – usually for muscle attachments
Trochanter tuberosity w/ special names (femur)
Trochlea a pulley shaped process
Capitulum “little head”
Head a rounded terminal enlargement for articulation, usually distal ends of bone
Antrum aka Sinus cavity within a bone
Condyle rounded smooth kuckle like process for articulation
Neck adjacent to the head of a bone
Epicondyle upone the condyle
Sulcus “groove” or furrow on the surface of a bone
Facet articular surface
Hammulus hook like process
Joint place of union b/w 2 bones regardless of degree of movement
Meatus foramen with length
Squama flat part of bone
Cartilidge is an _____ tissue avascular
A Joint is A union b/w two or more bones or rigid parts
What are the 3 classifications of Joints? Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial
Fibrous Joint suture joint; 2 bones united by fibrous connective tissue
Cartilaginous comprised of hyaline. Ex: occiput to sphenoid and the disc in the symphysis pubis
Synovial Joint cavity of the joint is lined with synovial membrane and lubricated w/ a viscous synovial fluid within joint capsule
Cartiladge receives nourishment from the perichondrium
What is the most common type of Joint? Synovial
Define the 6 types of Synovial Joints.
Pivot, Plane, Hinge, Saddle, Condyloid, Ball and Socket
Joints Classified based on movement become SAD: Synarthrosis (immovable), Amphiarthrosis (slightly moveable), Diarthrosis (freely moveable)
Hyaline Cartilage glass like tissue found on articular surfaces of synovial joints
Fibrocartilage pubic symphysis
Elastic cartilage similar to hyaline except it has elastic fibers
Hinge joint allows movement in one plane. Flex and extend
Pivot rotational movement
Condylar joint rounded condyle fits into oval cup surface. 2 planes
Ellipsoid oval joint which can flex, extend, adduct and abduct (aka circumduct)
Saddle Joint concave surface that fits over convex surface (thumb)
Ball and Socket rounded condyle fits into a fossae (hip)
Plane allows gilding (vertebrae)
CI (name and function) Olfactory and smell
CII (name and function) Optic and vision
CIII (name and function) Occulomotor and motor to eye muscles
CIV (name and function) Trochlear and motor to superior oblique aka the pulley muscle
CV (name and function) Trigeminal and has 3 divisions (I, II, III for ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular)
CVI (name and function) Abducens and motor to lateral rectus abducts the eyeball
CVII (name and function) Facial and motor to muscle of facial expression, ear ooicle and sensory to inner ear. Found in vicinity of inner ear.
CVIII (name and function) Vestibulocochlear and balance and hearing
CIX (name and function) – Glossopharyngeal and motor to sensory to pharynx and posterior 1/3 of tongue
CX (name and function) Vagus and wanderer has a laundry list of sensory and motor functions
CXI (name and function) Spinal accessory and motor to trap and SCM
CXII (name and function) Hypoglossal and motor to muscles of tongue
CI exits where? Skull in the anterior cranial fossa above the nose and orbital ridge
Where do CII through CVI exit? the skull in the middle cranial fossa behind the orbit and in front of the inner ear
Where do CVII through CXII exit? within the posterior cranial fossa as these nerves are supplying the ear, pharynx and tongue
Emissary vein connects veins within and out of the skull
Foramen cecum emissary vein b/w superior sagittal sinus and nasal plexus of veins
Cribiform plate of ethmoid transmits CI
Hypophyseal fossa contains pituitary aka pituitary fossa
Superior orbital fissure transmits V1, CIII, CIV, CVI and ophthalmic vessels
Foramen rotundum transmits V2
Foramen Ovale transmits V3
Foramen Spinosum transmits middle meningeal artery and vein (impressions on the interior of skull vault)
Foramen lacerum nothing of significance passes through, blocked by cartilage of auditory tube
Optic canal transmits CII and cranial retinal artery
Facial hiatus emerges the greater superficial petrosal nerve which is a branch of CVII
Foramen Magnum spinal cord begins here
Hypoglossal canal CXII, meningeal artery
Jugular foramen sigmoid sinus becomes internal jugular vein exits CiX, CX, CXI
Internal acoustic meatus CVII, VIII, labyrinthine artery to inner ear
Condylar canal emissary vein
Mastoid foramen mastoid emissary vein, branch of the occipital artery to dura matter
Stylomastoid foramen CVII (facial nerve)
Greater and lesser palatine foraminae greater and lesser palatine nerves and greater palatine artery and vein
Carotid canal internal carotid artery enter here associated with a plexus of sympathetic nerves, enters the cranial cavity just above the foramen lacerum
Incisive foramen behind the incisors and transmits the incisive branch of the nasopalatine nerve, a branch of CVII
Parietal emissary foraminae found on either side of the sagittal suture transmit the parietal emissary veins
Inferior orbital fissure V2
Supraorbital foramen supraorbital nerve, VI and supraorbital artery
Infraorbital foramen infraorbital nerve and artery
Anterior and posterior ethmoid foraminae branches of V1
Zygomaticofacial foramen transmits the zygomaticofacial branch of the zygomatic nerve V2
Pterygomaxillary fissure V2 goes through here on its way from the foramen rotundum into the maxilla
Mandibular foramen inferior alveolar nerve of V3
Mental foramen mental nerve branch of inferior alveolar nerve
Bregma junction of coronal and sagittal sutures
Lambda junction of sagittal and lambdoidal sutures
Obelion point of a sagittal sutre b/w the parietal foraminae
Glabella point b/w the superciliary arches
Stephanion superior temporal line and coronal suture
Pterion area that encompasses the sphenoparietal suture
Asterion a junction of lambdoid, occipital, mastoid and parietal mastoid sutures
Nasion a junction of internasal and nasofrontal sutures
Inion midpoint
Basion and Opisthion midline points on anterior and posterior borders of the foramen magnum
Vertex highest point on cranium
Created by: 650822713