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Mod. 6

Mod. 6 - Medical Terminology

QuestionAnswer
an(o) - root - anus
append(o) - root - appendix
appendic(o) - root - appendix
bucc(o) - root - cheek
cec(o) - root - cecum
Celi(o) - root - belly
chol(e) - root - gall/bile
cholecyst(o) - root - gall bladder
col(o) - root - colon
colon(o) - root - colon
dent(o) - root - teeth
odont(o) - root - teeth
duoden(o) - root - teeth
enter(o) - root - small intestine
esophag(o) - root - esophagus
gastr(o) - root - stomach
gingiv(o) - root - gums
hepat(o) - root - liver
ile(o) - root - ileum
jejun(o) - root - jejunum
labi(o) - root - lips
lingu(o) - root - tongue
gloss(o) - root - tongue
or(o) - root - mouth
pancreat(o) - root - pancreas
peritone(o) -root -peritoneum
pharyng(o) - root - pharynx
proct(o) - root -rectum/anus
rect(o) - root - rectum/anus
sigmoid(o) - root - sigmoid colon
pre - prefix - before
post - prefix - after
retro -prefix - backward
ase - suffix - enzyme
flux - suffix - flow
iasis - suffix - abnormal condition
lith - suffix - calculus/stone
lytic - suffix - breakdown
pepsia - suffix - digestion
prandial - suffix - meal
ostomy - suffix - creation of an artificial opening
tresia - suffix - opening
tripsy - suffix - crushing
ascites fluid accumulation within the abdomen
cirrhosis chronic liver disease
diverticulosis forming of bulging sacs in the large intestine
diverticulitis inflammation of bulging sacs in large intestine
hemorrhoids - mass/enlarged and twisted varicose vein in the mucous membrane of the rectum
hernia protrusion of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it
inflammatory bowl disease ulceration of the mucous membrane of the colon ---- Ex: chrone's disease
irritable bowel syndrome (ibs) - disturbance of instestinal function of unknown origin
jaundince result of excess bile in blood, characterized by yellow skin and eyes
ulcer open sore/lesion of the skin/mucous membrane
Cortic(o) -root - renal cortex
cyst(o) - root - urinary bladder
dips(o) - root - thirst
glomerul(o) - root - glomerulus
hydr(o) - root - water
lith(o) - root - stone
medull(o) - root - renal medulla
nephr(o) - root - kidney
ren(o) - root -kidney
noct(i) - root - night
pyel(o) - root - renal pelvis
ur(o) - root - urine
urin(o) - root -urine
ureter(o) - root - ureter
urethra(o) - root - urethra
an - prefix - without
dys - prefix - difficult
poly - prefix - many
trans - prefix - through or across
continence - suffix - to stop
emia - suffix - a blood condition
graphy - suffix - process of recording
iasis - suffix - condition
ia - suffix - condition
itis - suffix - inflammation
lysis - suffix - breakdown
megaly - suffix - enlargement
ptosis - suffix - drooping/prolapse
tripsy - suffix - crushing
uria - suffix - urination
diuresis abnormal secretion of large amounts of urin
dysuria painful or difficult urination
end-stage renal disease kidney disease where kidneys can no longer adequately filter the blood
renal hypertension elevated level of urea or other protein waste products in the blood
uremia elevated level of urea or other protein waste products in the blood
balan(o) - root - glans penis
orch(o) -root - testes
orchi(o) - root - testes
orchid(o) - root -testes
test(o) - root - testes
prostat(o) - root - prostate gland
spermat(o) - root - sperm
cervic(o) - root - neck, cervix (neck of the uterus)
colp(o) - root - vagina
vagin(o) - root - vagina
gynec(o) - root - female/woman
hyster(o) - root - uterus
uter(o) - root - uterus
lapar(o) - root - abdomen
mamm(o) - root - breast
mast(o) - root - breast
men(o) - root - menses/menstruation
oophor(o) - root - ovary
ovari(o) - root - ovary
salping(o) - root - fallopian tube
benign prostatic hypertrophy - enlargement of the prostate gland - commonly seen in men over 50
candidiasis - vaginal yeast infection - fungal infection that is characterized by extreme itchiness and curd-like discharge
endometriosis - endometrial tissue grows in other areas of the body, causing: ----- pain ----- irregular bleeding ----- possible infertility
herpes genitalis -geno/anorectal infection with herpes virus - spread via sex - can also be passed to fetus during child birth and can be fatal in children
sublingual below the tongue
gingivitis inflammation of the gums
esophagoplasty surgical repair of the esophagus
duodenorrhaphy suture or fixation of the duodenum
gastrostomy artificial opening of the stomach
cholelithiasis abnormal condition of gall stones
sigmoidoscopy visual examination of the sigmoid colon
rectostenosis narrowing of the rectum
dyspepsia bad or difficult digestion
postprandial after a meal
visual examination of the colon colonoscopy
stones in the pancreas pancreatolith
pain in the gall bladder cholecystalgia
enlarged liver hepatomegaly
narrowing of the jejunum jejunostenosis
incision of the ileum ileotomy
inflammation of the small intestin enteritis
above the stomach epigastric
herniation of protrusion of the duodenum duodenocele
specialist of the teeth dentist
lithotripsy crushing a stone
nocturia having to urinate during the night
hyperdipsia abnormal condition of excessive thirst
renomegaly enlarged kidney
nephrolithiasis abnormal condition of kidney stones
suprarenal above the kidneys
nephroptosis prolapsed of the kidney
cystorrhaphy suture of the bladder
uterealgia pain in the ureters
urethrocystitis inflammation of the urethra and the bladder
surgical repair of the bladder cystoplasty
instrument used to examine the urethra urethroscope
surgical removal of the kidney nephrectomy/renectomy
crushing of a kidney stone nephrolithotripsy
ureteromegaly enlarged ureter
pertaining to the renal medulla medullar
below the bladder hypocystic
prolapsed of the urethra urethroptosis
breakdown of the renal cortex corticolysis
inflammation of the bladder cystitis
spermatogenesis formation of new sperm
prostatitis inflammation of the prostate
testectomy surgical removal of the testes
oophoropathhy disease of the ovaries
mammogram visual record of the breast
hysteroptosis prolapse of the uterus
salpingoscope instrument used to visually examine the fallopian tube
colpodynia pain in the vagina
gynecologist female specialist
cervicorrhaphy suture of the cervix
surgical repair of the glans penis balanoplasty
herniation of the testes testocele
enlarged prostate gland prostatomegaly
surgical removal of the breast mastectomy
lack of menstrual flow or dischard amenorrhea
sperm in the urine spermatouria
a sperm cell spermatocyte
prolapsed of the ovaries oophoroptosis
inflammation of the vagina vaginitis
surgical fixation of the testes orchopexy
three functions of the GI system 1 - transport food 2 - prepare food for absorption 3 - transport waste products for elimination
describe the oral cavity - the mouth - voluntary - contains 3 pairs of salivary glands ----- releases digestive enzymes
mastication - chewing - breaking food into smaller peices
describe the papillae - raised projections on tongue - "taste buds" - helps push food from mouth to pharynx and eventually down the esophagus
describe the esophagus - connects the mouth to the stomach - peristalsis starts here
what is perstalsis - the function of the smooth muscle in the GI system - propels food - involuntary
describe the bladder - hollow - elastic - muscular sac - in the pelvic cavity - receives urine from ureters
the internal sphincter is (voluntary/involuntary); and the external sphincter is (voluntary/involuntary) internal = INVOLUNTARY external= VOLUNTARY
the (internal/external) sphincter allows for voiding EXTERNAL sphincter allows for voiding
the ___________________ carries urine from the bladder to the external body and allows for voiding. URETHRA allows for voiding
micturition process of voiding
functions of the male reproductive system 1 - produce sperm 2 - secrete testosterone
describe the testes - there are two - develops in the kidney region and decends into the scrotum prior to birth
seminiferous tubules location of spermatogenesis (sperm production)
interstitial cells - other cells in the testes - responsible for testosterone production
path of sperm during ejaculation - seminiferous tubules - epididymus - vas deferens - ejaculatory duct (urethra)
function of the epididymus sperm storage prior to ejaculation
what is the function of the vas deferens carry sperm into pelvic region
at what point does the vas deferens become the ejaculatory duct when the seminal vesicle ducts connect to the vas deferens
what is the function of the seminal vesicles produce and secrete seminal fluid ---- nurishes sperm and forms most of ejaculate fluid
the penis is formed of ___________ masses of erectile tissue 3
where is the prostate gland located the upper end of the vas deferens
what is the function of the prostate gland produce alkaline fluid --- aids in sperm motility --- protects sperm in acidic vaginal fluid
describe the glans penis - distal end of the penis - covered with retractable skin fold (prepuce/foreskin)
functions of the female reproductive system - produce estrogen - produce progesterone - foster a safe environment for pregnancy
describe the ovaries - female gonads - either side of uterus - attach to uterus by the broad ligament
what are the functions of the ovaries - released mature ovum - produce sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)
describe fallopian tubes - connects ovaries to uterus - site of fertilization
describe the uterus - muscular organ - sits between bladder and rectum
the fundus of the uterus upper portion of the uterus
corpus of the uterus the body of the uterus
where does pregnancy usually occur - the fundus or the corpus of the uterus
endometrium mucosa layer of the uterus
myometrium muscular layer of the uterus
describe the cervix - narrow lower portion of uterus - leads to the vagina
describe the vagina - muscular tube lined with a mucous membrane
bartholin's glands - two - either side of the vagina - secrete mucous - helps lubricate the vagina
external genitalia in women labia majora and labia minora (vulva)
the labia majora/minora are also collectively called vulva
three parts of the stomach 1 - fundus (upper) 2 - body (middle) 3 - antrum (lower)
rugae - fold of stomach lining - allow for stretching during food breakdown
name the two sphincters in the stomach - esophageal (between esophagus and stomach) - pyloric (between stomach and small intestine)
what are the functions of the stomach sphincters - openings - contract and relax - allow food in/out of stomach respectively
esophageal sphincter allows food (in/out) of the stomach; while the pyloric sphincter allows food (in/out) of the stomach esophageal = IN pyloric = OUT
what is chyme - food that has been broken down chemically
name the accessory organs to the gi system - liver - pancreas - gall bladder
what is bile - product of the liver - aids in food breakdown - stored in gall bladder
what is amylase and lipase - produced in pancreas - digestive enzymes - enter small intestine via pancreatic duct
path of food - mouth - esophagus - esophageal sphincter - stomach - pyloric sphincter - duodenum - jejunum - ileum -ileocecal valve - cecum - colon (ascending/transvers/descending) - sigmoid colon - rectum (anus)
1st part of the small intestine - duodenum
where does chyme mix with bile in the duodenum of the small intestine
2nd part of the small intestine jejunum
3rd part of the small intestine ileum
where does most absorption take place in the gi system ileum of small intestine
the ileocecal valve the boarder between the large and small intestine
where is the appendix located in the cecum of the large intestine
name the three parts of the colon - ascending - transverse - descending
this part of the large intestine is S-shaped sigmoid colon
what is the function of the large intestine - does NOT absorb nutrients - functions more as a storage space
name the components of the urinary system - (2) kidneys - (2) ureters - bladder - urethra
what is the function of the glomeruli collection/filtration of urine
the is the primary function of the urinary system - remove urea from blood
describe urea - metabolic waste - nitrogenous waste
describe the kidneys - bean shaped - surrounded by adipose tissue - two portions ----cortex ---- medulla
renal cortex outer portion of the kidneys
renal medulla - inner portion - contains nephrons (the functional unit of the kidneys), collection tubules, glomeruli
what are the glomeruli - capillaries at the beginning of each nephron
Created by: kandriot
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